University of Kentucky, Department of Animal & Food Sciences, FSC 434

1. Describe Stoke's law and explain why homogenization usually improves emulsion stability. (6 pts).

2. Describe two ways that emulsifiers can contribute to emulsion stability and give an example of a type of emulsifier that contributes to each type stabilizing effect. (6 pts).

3. Describe how "emulsifying salts" such as the phosphates act to promote a uniform, smooth texture in cheese. (6 pts)

4. Briefly describe the postmortem changes that can affect the pH of muscle. (5 pts).

5. What is the role of ATP in muscle contraction? (6 pts).

6. Describe the role of calcium in regulation of muscle contraction. (6 pts).

7. Describe the principles of how a whey protein concentrate is made. What physiochemical property of whey proteins dictates a method of protein purification that differs from soy protein and/or casein? (9 pts).

8. Briefly describe the immediate hypersensitivity reaction responsible for many food allergies. (6 pts).

9. Describe the structure of Kappa casein and how this structure affects its solubility characteristics. Also discuss how it is cleaved with rennet and how this affects the solubility of other caseins. (6 pts).