2016 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC MEETING

Maternal dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compound affect levels of trace minerals in eggs and docosahexaenoic acid content in progeny tissues
L. Macalintal, T. Ao, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, P Glenney, M. Ford, K. Dawson
The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from microalgae and an antioxidant pack on the levels of egg trace minerals and fatty acids (FA) composition in chick tissues were assessed. Broiler breeders were fed a commercial corn-soy based diet with or without the addition of 1%All-G-Rich™ + EconomasE® utilizing 6 pens/treatment containing 10 hens with 1 rooster/pen. Microalgae (All-G-Rich™, Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc.) is known to contain high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) while EconomasE® is a proprietary blend of ingredients designed to improve the antioxidant status of animals. At 24 wks of production, 3 eggs / pen were collected for trace mineral content and fatty acid analysis. Eggs collected at 17 weeks of production were incubated and at hatch, 6 chicks / pen were harvested for FA profiling of the residual yolk, brain, liver and breast muscle. The selenium, manganese and iron content of eggs from breeder hens fed the All-G-Rich™ and EconomasE® supplemented diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to those eggs from hens fed the corn-soy diet. Total n3 FA, particularly the DHA content of eggs from breeders fed the supplemented diet was higher than those eggs from non supplemented hens. No difference was detected for n6 FA however reduction in n6:n3 ratio was observed in eggs from breeders fed the supplemented diet (P<0.01). The DHA content of tissues harvested from progeny of breeder hens fed the supplemented diet was higher (P<0.01) than those chicks from breeder hens fed the corn-soy diet. EPA was detected and found be higher in the brain, liver and breast muscle but not at the residual yolk of chicks from hens fed the supplemented diet. Higher concentrations of Ʃn-3 FA (P<0.001) were measured in the brain, liver, and muscle while low concentrations of Ʃn-6 FA for brain and liver but not breast muscle were detected in chicks from hens fed the supplemented diet. No difference was observed for the residual yolk. Reduction in the n6/n3 ratio (P<0.01) was observed for the residual yolk sac, brain and liver but not for the breast muscle. Supplementation of the maternal diet with All-GRich™ + EconomasE® increased the levels of critical trace minerals in breeder eggs. Furthermore it appears that maternal transfer of n-3 FA may enhance brain function and development by enhancing the DHA content in the chick brain.

2015 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Microalgae supplementation in broiler diets enriches docosahexaenoic acid content of meat and improves bone strength.
T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.A. Paul, A.J. Pescatore, A.A. Cantor, P. Glenney, M.J. Ford and K.A. Dawson
All-G-Rich is a microalgae meal (Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc .) that contains 16% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) . A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of All-G-Rich on broiler growth performance, bone strength, and fatty acid (FA) content of chicken meat. Ten replicate pens of 23 chicks each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 consisted of feeding a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no supplementation of All-G-Rich, while chicks in Treatments 2, 3 and 4 received the basal diet supplemented with 0 .5, 1 and 2% All-G-Rich, respectively, for 42 d. Chicks in Treatment 5 were fed the basal diet without microalgae supplementation from d 1 to d 30 and the basal diet supplemented with 0 .5% All-G-Rich from d31 to 42. Bone breaking strength was assayed at d 19. The FA concentration of breast and thigh meat, with and without skin was analyzed at 42 d of age. Dietary supplementation of All-GRich did not affect the growth performance. The DHA concentration of breast meat was increased (P < 0 .01) by all levels of All-G-Rich supplementation. In addition, the breast meat DHA concentration was higher (P < 0 .01) for Treatment 2, in which the supplement of 0 .5% All-G-Rich was used for the entire 42-d period, compared with that for Treatment 5, in which the supplement of 0 .5% All-G-Rich was used only during d 31 to 42. Similar results were observed for thigh meat. Compared with Treatment 1 (basal diet), the EPA and total n-3 fatty acid concentrations in breast and thigh meat were increased (P < 0 .01) by Treatments 2, 3 and 4 but not by Treatment 5. Humerus breaking strength of chicks fed diets with 1 or 2% All-G-Rich was higher (P < 0 .05) than that of chicks fed other treatment diets. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of All-G-Rich can enrich DHA content of chicken meat and improve humerus breaking strength of broiler chicks.

Microalgae supplementation in broiler diets enriches docosahexaenoic acid content of meat and improves bone strength.
T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.A. Paul, A.J. Pescatore, A.A. Cantor, P. Glenney, M.J. Ford, and K.A. Dawson
All-G-Rich is a microalgae meal (Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc .) that contains 16% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) . A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of All-G-Rich on broiler growth performance, bone strength, and fatty acid (FA) content of chicken meat. Ten replicate pens of 23 chicks each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. Treatment 1 consisted of feeding a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no supplementation of All-G-Rich, while chicks in Treatments 2, 3 and 4 received the basal diet supplemented with 0 .5, 1 and 2% All-G-Rich, respectively, for 42 d. Chicks in Treatment 5 were fed the basal diet without microalgae supplementation from d 1 to d 30 and the basal diet supplemented with 0 .5% All-G-Rich from d31 to 42. Bone breaking strength was assayed at d 19. The FA concentration of breast and thigh meat, with and without skin was analyzed at 42 d of age. Dietary supplementation of All-GRich did not affect the growth performance. The DHA concentration of breast meat was increased (P < 0 .01) by all levels of All-G-Rich supplementation. In addition, the breast meat DHA concentration was higher (P < 0 .01) for Treatment 2, in which the supplement of 0 .5% All-G-Rich was used for the entire 42-d period, compared with that for Treatment 5, in which the supplement of 0 .5% All-G-Rich was used only during d 31 to 42. Similar results were observed for thigh meat. Compared with Treatment 1 (basal diet), the EPA and total n-3 fatty acid concentrations in breast and thigh meat were increased (P < 0 .01) by Treatments 2, 3 and 4 but not by Treatment 5. Humerus breaking strength of chicks fed diets with 1 or 2% All-G-Rich was higher (P < 0 .05) than that of chicks fed other treatment diets. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of All-G-Rich can enrich DHA content of chicken meat and improve humerus breaking strength of broiler chicks.

Effects of dietary All-G-Rich and EconomasE on semen quality of broiler breeder roosters
L.M. Macalintal, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and K.A. Dawson
Semen quality is a major factor affecting fertility in chickens. Avian semen is characterized by high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which provide fluidity and structural integrity of the sperm cell membrane. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding microalgae and an antioxidant product to diets of broiler breeder roosters on semen quality and sperm morphology. Microalgae (All-G-Rich, Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc.) is known to contain high levels of DHA while EconomasE is a proprietary blend of ingredients designed to improve the antioxidant status of animals. Eighteen broiler breeder roosters (Cobb500), 33 wk of age, were housed in individual cages and were provided feed and water on an ad libitum basis. Roosters were divided into 2 groups (n = 9 each) and were fed a corn-soybean meal diet with or without All-G-Rich + EconomasE. Three pooled semen samples (3 roosters / pool), were obtained from each experimental group. After collection, semen samples were diluted 1:1 with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and maintained at 25°C during analysis. Diluted semen was analyzed for packed cell volume, sperm cell concentration using a hemocytometer and morphology using an eosin/nigrosin staining technique. Feeding a combination of All-GRich + EconomasE significantly increased the sperm concentration (P = 0 .022) and packed cell volume (P = 0 .036). No difference was observed for either viability or mortality. However, the percentage of abnormal sperm cells was higher for the non supplemented birds, compared with those fed the supplemented diet with the combination of All-G-Rich + EconomasE (P = 0 .009). Normal cells, as a percentage of viable cells, was significantly higher for All-G-Rich + EconomasE-fed birds (P = 0 .047). These data suggest that feeding a diet containing All-G-Rich + EconomasE can be used to improve the semen quality of broiler breeder roosters.

2015 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Dietary inclusion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) rich microalgae meal on oxidative stability and water-holding capacity of broiler thigh meat during storage
R. Delles, T. Ao, M. Ford, R. Samuel, Y. Xiong, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, K. Dawson
SP1 (CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc.) is a natural and sustainable micro-algae meal that contains at least 16% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as DHA have demonstrated various health benefits in humans and enhanced PUFA content of meat products is desirable. However, PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. Previous studies have shown that fish oil supplementation increased oxidation and decreased shelf life in fresh meat. The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary inclusion of SP1 on boneless, skinless broiler thigh meat quality when packaged under polyvinylchloride (PVC) and during retail display at 2–4 °C, for up to 7 days. Of 920 broilers that received diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% SP1 for 42 d, 48 birds (4 birds from 3 pens per treatment) were selected for meat quality attributes. During the first 3 days of storage, broilers fed 0.5% SP1 had the lowest (P<0.05) level of lipid oxidation, compared with all other dietary groups. Free sulfhydryls, a measurement of protein stability, decreased in all samples throughout storage, regardless of micro-algae meal inclusion. Samples from broilers fed diets supplemented with 2.0% SP1 had the lowest amount of free sulfhydryls, most notable (P<0.05) by day 6 of storage. Gel electrophoresis revealed significant, time-dependent losses of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and concomitant formation of high molecular weight polymers for all dietary treatments, indicative of myofibrillar deterioration and protein oxidation. Prominent losses in the MHC occurred in samples from broilers fed either 0 or 2% SP1. Water-holding capacity was similar across all dietary treatments. Dietary supplementation with up to 1.0% SP1 had similar quality attributes to control samples and did not negatively influence oxidative stability of chicken thigh meat during storage. Therefore, dietary inclusion of SP1 can provide a source of PUFA for the enrichment of meat that does not decrease shelf life of fresh meat products.

Dietary microalgae improved bone strength of pullets
T. Ao, L. Macalintal, M. Paul, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, M. Ford, K.Dawson
The incidence of leg weakness and broken bones is a serious problem in poultry industry worldwide, causing huge economic losses each year. Lipids have been shown to play an important role in skeletal metabolism and bone health. Recent research indicated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) inhibited bone resorption and promoted bone formation, and thus increased marrow cellularity and bone strength. SP-1TM (Alltech, Inc.) is derived from micro-algae and contains at least 16% of the n-3 PUFA DHA. A trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of SP-1TM on the development and bone quality using eight replicate groups of 16 Hy-Line W-36 pullets. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal starter and grower control diets alone or supplemented with 1.0 or 2.0% SP-1TM. Experimental diets were fed from 1 d through 17 wk of age. Feed and water were provided on an ad libitum basis. Bone samples were taken at 10 and 17 wk of age for assaying bone breaking strength, bone ash and bone mineral content. Dietary supplementation of SP-1 had no effect on BW. Feed intake of pullets fed 2% SP-1 was lower (P = 0.06) than that of those fed the control diet. Percent bone ash and bone micromineral concentrations (Mn, Zn, Fe & Cu) were not affected by dietary treatments. Tibia breaking strength sampled at 10 wk was increased (P = 0.057) by dietary supplementation of SP-1. At 17 wk, humerus breaking strength was increased by dietary supplementation of 2% SP-1 (P = 0.078). The results from this study indicate that dietary SP-1 may improve bone strength of replacement pullets.

2014 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of microalgae supplementation of laying hen diets on oxidative stability and quality of stored eggs
M. Paul, J. Davis, L. Macalintal, M. Ford, D. Gillespie, T. Ao, A. Cantor, A. Pescatore
As omega-3 fatty acids continue to gain positive attention for their implications in brain development and heart health, there is an increase in public demand for omega-3 enriched products including eggs. Microalgae, an alternative to fish oil and flaxseed as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, can be incorporated into layer diets to produce a beneficial fatty acid profile including increased yolk content of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA). As a polyunsaturated fatty acid, DHA is highly susceptible to oxidation. Over time, an increase in fatty acid oxidation may result in an undesirable flavor or odor of foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing laying hen diets with varying levels of Schizochytrium microalgae (SP-1, Alltech, Inc.) on the oxidative stability and quality of stored eggs. Six replicate groups of 12 Hy-Line® W-36 laying hens were assigned each of 4 treatments consisting of feeding a corn-soy based diet with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% SP-1. After 25 wks of dietary treatment, 12 eggs/rep were collected and divided into groups of 4 to be stored for 0, 15 or 30 d at 4°C in commercial egg flats contained in a cardboard egg case. Egg yolks were assayed for TBA reactive substances (TBARS) to assess oxidative stability after storage. Haugh units, egg weight, % shell, yolk color (La*b*, Hunter Colorflex) and yolk weight were measured to evaluate egg quality. Dietary treatments did not affect TBARS, Haugh units, egg weight, % shell and yolk weight during storage. At 0 d of storage, egg yolks from hens fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2% SP-1 resulted in lower (P<0.01) L values (lightness) and higher (P<0.01) a* values (redness). At 30 d of storage, egg yolks from hens fed 0.5 to 2.0% SP-1 had lower (P<0.01) L values (lightness), with only 2.0% SP-1 supplementation causing an increase in (P<0.01) b* values (yellowness). These results indicate that oxidative stability and egg quality is not compromised by dietary inclusion of SP-1 up to 2%. Furthermore, SP-1 supplementation in laying hen diets can be used to produce darker and more color intense egg yolks.

Effects of dietary microalgae and time to initial feeding on growth performance and humoral immune response of broiler chicks
L.M. Macalintal, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, and K.A. Dawson
Adding microalgae (SP-1, Alltech Inc.) to broiler diets has been shown to increase the n-3 fatty acids content, in particular docosahexaenoic acid, in blood and tissues and to elicit higher antibody responses upon immune challenge. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary SP-1 and time to initial feeding (holding time) on growth performance and immune response of broiler chicks. The treatments consisted of 2 holding times (0 or 48 h post-hatch) and 2 levels of dietary SP-1 (0 or +1%) using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Ten replicate pens of 10 chicks per pen were randomly assigned to each of the 4 treatments and raised for 21d. Immunoglobulin antibody titer against SRBC challenge was evaluated. The relative weights of lymphoid organs were measured at 7 and 14d of age. No interaction between holding time and dietary SP-1 were observed for all the variables. Chicks with 48hr holding compared with those with no holding had lower (P < 0.05) weight gain, feed intake at d 21, lower (P < 0.05) relative bursa weight, relative thymus weight at d 7 and relative liver weight at d 14. After 14 d post-primary SRBC challenge, the blood total anti-SRBC antibody titer and IgM titer from chicks with 48 h holding were lower (P < 0.05) than those chicks with no holding. Compared with control group with no SP-1 supplementation, chicks fed diet containing 1% SP-1 had lower (P < 0.01) feed intake, higher (P < 0.05) gain to feed ratio at d 14, higher (P < 0.05) relative spleen weight at d 7 and higher (P < 0.05) relative liver weight at d 14. The results from current study suggest that holding longer time after hatch negatively affects growth performance, lymphoid organ development and immunity of chicks. Dietary SP-1 may improve early growth performance and lymphoid organ development of chicks.

2014 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of dietary supplementation of microalgae on growth performance, immunity and fatty acid profile of broiler chicks
L. Macalintal, T. Ao, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, B. Timmons, C. Conn, M. Ford, K. Dawson
The long chain n-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), are very important in the structure and function of cellular membranes. Studies indicate that DHA provides unique properties to the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and contributes to membrane plasticity, fluidity and permeability. These properties play a direct role in a variety of cellular and multicellular processes, including inflammation and immunity. Microalgae contain high amounts of omega-3 fatty acids (FA), particularly DHA. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding graded levels of microalgae, Schizochytrium sp (SP-1, Alltech, Inc.) to broiler diets on growth performance, humoral immunity and FA profile of fat tissue. Using 10 replicate pens of six chicks each per treatment, chicks were fed corn-soy diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% SP-1 for 28 days. Chicks were grown in an environmentally controlled room with feed and water provided ad libitum. At day 21, abdominal fat pads were collected from six chicks per treatment for FA analysis. At 7 and 21 days of age, 12 chicks from each treatment groups were intravenously injected with 1ml of 7% sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Blood samples were collected at 7, 14 and 21 days post primary SRBC injection for anti-SRBC hemagglutination assays. The addition of SP-1 did not affect the feed intake, weight gain and gain:feed through 21 days of growth. Linear increases (P<0.01) in the concentrations of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid and total omega-3 FA in the abdominal fat were observed with SP-1 supplementation. Total antibody production was increased after 7 (P < 0.001), 14 (P = 0.07) and 21d (P = 0.09) post primary SRBC injection. Higher IgM titers persisted through 14 days post primary injection for those chicks fed diets with SP-1. At 7 days post secondary (or 21d post primary) SRBC injection, IgG titers were higher (P<0.01) for the chicks supplemented with SP-1. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of SP-1 can enrich the omega-3 FA deposition in fat tissue and enhance the immune response of broiler chicks.

2013 POUTLRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of dietary supplementation of microalgae on production performance, egg quality and yolk fatty acid profile of laying hens
T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M. Paul, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, B. Timmons, C.Conn, M.J. Ford, and K.A. Dawson
High dietary levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been shown to be beneficial to human health. Fish oil has been widely investigated for enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in eggs in the past. However, due to the concern of off-flavors of eggs when high levels of fish oil are included in laying hen diets, alternative sources are needed to reach the same goal. The microalgae strain Schizochytrium contains 70% fat that has a fatty acid profile similar to that of fish oil. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of adding different levels of microalgae strain Schizochytrium (SP-1, Alltech Inc.) in layer diets on the performance of layers, egg quality and fatty acid profile of egg yolk. Twelve replicate groups of 6 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (46-wk-old) were assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soybean meal control diet alone or supplemented with 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% SP-1 during a 24-wk production period. Before giving treatment diets, all layers were fed the corn-soy control diet. After feeding the experimental diets for 4 wk, egg yolks were analyzed for fatty acids content. Egg production, feed intake, body weight, egg weight and egg and shell quality were not affected by dietary treatments. The DHA content in egg yolk linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of SP-1 in the diet (283, 419, 510 and 656 mg/100g yolk). Plasma DHA concentration also increased (P < 0.01) due to dietary supplementation of SP-1 (1.31, 2.01, 2.31 and 2.90%). The data from this trial indicate that adding microalgae-based SP-1 to layer diets is an effective method of producing DHA enriched eggs.

P347 - Effects of dietary supplementation of microalgae on growth performance, immunity and meat fatty acid profile of broilers. L. M. Macalintal, T. Ao, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, B. Timmons, C. Conn, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson

Dietary fish oil has been shown to be an effective way for promoting growth and immunity of the chicks and the enrichment of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken meat. However, the off-flavors of meat due to addition of fish oil in the diet prevents this approach from being widely accepted. The microalgae strain, Schizochytrium contains 70% fat which has a fatty acid profile similar to that of fish oil. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of adding different levels of microalgae strain Schizochytrium (SP-1, Alltech Inc.) to broiler diets on growth performance, immunity of broiler chicks and the fatty acid profile of chicken meat and liver. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding: 1) a corn-soy control diet with no supplementation of SP-1; 2) the corn-soy diet + 2% SP-1; and 3) the corn-soy diet + 4% SP-1. One d of age, 180 male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments using 10 replicate cages of 6 chicks per cage and raised in an environmentally controlled room for 21d. Eighteen chicks fed diet 1 or 3 were intravenously injected with 1 mL of 7% sheep red blood cells at 7d (primary) and 21d (secondary) of age. Blood samples were collected at 7 and 21d post primary or 7d post secondary injection. Total IgG and IgM titers were measured using hemagglutination assays. Supplementing the diet with SP-1 significantly increased weight gain and feed intake at 7 and 14d of age. The EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acid content in chicken breast, thigh meat and liver were linearly increased (P < 0.01) by dietary SP-1 while the ratio of n-6 fatty acids to n-3 fatty acids in chicken meat and liver was significantly decreased. The IgM titer of chicks fed SP-1 was higher (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet after 21d post primary injection. These results indicate that adding SP-1 to the diet can enrich n-3 fatty acids in chicken meat, promote immunity and early growth performance of broilers.