2015 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of early imprinting and replacing inorganic Zn with different levels of Zn proteinate in broiler diets on growth performance and tissue zinc status of broiler chicks
S. Mwangi, T. Ao, J. Timmons, M. Paul, L. Macalintal, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, and M. Ford
Dietary manipulation early in life has been shown to affect the development of broiler chickens later in life. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding a zinc (Zn) deficient diet during the first 96 h post-hatch and dietary supplementation of different levels and sources of Zn on the growth performance, tissue and excreta Zn content using a RCB wwith a 2 × 5 factorial arrangements of treatments. Four hundred twenty (1 d old) male broiler chicks were divided into 2 groups. One group was fed a corn-soy basal diet containing 25 mg of Zn/kg. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn/kg. Both diets were fed for 96 h. At d 5, chicks from each group were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments consisting of the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 8 or 40 mg/kg Zn as zinc oxide or Zn proteinate. There were no significant interactive effects between 2 factors. Early Zn imprinting decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and increased (P < 0.05) gain to feed ratio in 21d growing period. Chicks fed low Zn diet in first 96 h had lower (P < 0.05) Zn content in the tibia ash and excreta samples and higher (P < 0.05) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared with those fed diets containing recommended level of Zn. Chicks fed the diet supplemented with 8 mg of Zn as Bioplex Zn had higher (P < 0.01) Zn content in tibia ash compared with chicks fed a diet supplemented with 8 mg of Zn as Zn oxide. Chicks fed a diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn as Bioplex Zn had higher (P < 0.01) Zn content in the pancreas tissue compared with chicks fed diet supplemented with 40 mg of Zn as Zn oxide. Results from this study suggested that Zn imprinting in the early life of chicks may increase Zn absorption permanently and the bioavailability of Bioplex Zn is higher than that of Zn oxide based on tissue Zn concentrations.

Defining the chick’s requirement for microminerals when provided by organic forms
T. Ao, M. Paul, L. Macalintal, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, M. Ford, K. Dawson
Levels of microminerals used in typical commercial diets are often in excess of the chick’s requirements. Recent research has shown that microminerals provided as organic sources are more bioavailable than their corresponding inorganic salts. An experiment was conducted to determine the chick’s requirement for microminerals provided as proteinates (Bioplex®, Alltech Inc.). Eight replicate cages of 16 replacement pullets (Hy-Line W-36), 1d of age, were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments for 17 week. Treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean mealbased starter and grower diets supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at commercial levels (CL) in the form of inorganic salts or 20, 25 and 30% of CL in the form of proteinates. Growth performance, bone strength, micromineral concentration in bone ash and liver were assayed. Chicks supplemented with 30% CL as proteinates had higher (P<0.01) BW at 10 wk than those given other treatment diets. Humerus breaking strength of birds supplemented with the CL as inorganic salts at 10 wk was higher (P≤0.05) than that of birds fed 20 or 25% CL as proteinates. Tibia and liver Mn concentrations were higher (P<0.01) for birds fed CL as inorganic salts, while tibia Zn for birds fed 20% CL as proteinate was lower (P<0.01), compared with respective values for other treatments. Liver Cu for birds given 20% CL as proteinates was lower (P<0.01) than that for birds of all other treatments, except for those fed 30% CL as proteinates. The results indicate that supplementing pullets with microminerals as proteinates at 30% of the levels of inorganic salts typically found in commercial diets can support performance and bone development.

2013 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Dietary Zn proteinate (Bioplex Zn®) is more effective than Zn sulfate for improving broiler growth performance and tissue Zn concentration M. Paul, T. Ao, L. Macalintal, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, M. Ford, K. DawsonThe objective of this study was to test the effects of supplementing a corn-soybean meal  diet with either Zn proteinate (Bioplex Zn®) or Zn sulfate on growth performance and bone Zn concentration of broiler chicks. A total of 240 1-day old male broiler chicks was raised in cages in an environmentally controlled room for 3 wk. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soybean meal basal diet without zinc supplementation or with two supplemental levels of Zn (10 and 20 mg/kg) from either Bioplex Zn® or from zinc sulfate. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of five treatments. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the trial, two birds from each cage were randomly selected and euthanized to collect tibia samples for zinc analysis. Chicks fed the diet supplemented with 10 mg Zn/kg as Bioplex Zn had higher (P<0.05) feed intake and weight gain than those fed the diets with either no supplemental Zn or Zn sulfate at both supplemental levels. The Zn concentration of tibia ash from chicks fed the diet containing 20 mg Zn/kg as Bioplex Zn was higher (P<0.01) than that from chicks fed no supplemental Zn or Zn sulfate at both supplemental levels. The results from this trial indicate that supplementing corn-soybean meal diets with 10 mg Zn/kg  as Bioplex Zn is adequate to support  weight gain, feed intake and tissue Zn accumulation of broiler chicks during the first 3 weeks of growth.

Effects of dietary organic minerals, antioxidant supplementation and oxidized oil on production performance of broiler chicks
L.M. Macalintal, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, C.E. Johnson, M.J. Ford, and K.A. Dawson
Dietary fats and oils are important feed ingredients used to increase the caloric density of the diet. Factors such as temperature and length of storage may affect the quality of fats and oils added to the diet. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding corn-soybean meal diets containing fresh or oxidized soybean oil with or without the addition of an antioxidant pack (EconomasE and Bioplex minerals, Alltech Inc.) on production performance of broiler chicks, using a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure. Oxidized soybean oil was prepared by convection heat (100°C). A total of 1152 1-d old chicks were randomly allotted to the 4 dietary treatments using 12 replicates of 24 chicks per pen. Chicks were raised on floor pens for 42 d in an environmentally controlled room, and feed and water were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. At 21 and 42 d of age, breast muscle samples were collected for analysis of mineral content. No interactive effect between oil source and the antioxidant pack on production performance and mineral content of breast meat was found. Dietary oxidized oil increased (P < 0.05) feed intake and decreased gain to feed ratio of chicks. Dietary supplementation of antioxidant pack increased (P < 0.05) weight gain and gain to feed ratio of chicks in both starting and growing periods. The breast meat of chicks fed the antioxidant pack had higher (P < 0.01) selenium content than that from chicks fed control diet. The results indicate that the addition of antioxidant pack to broiler diets can improve performance of broiler chicks even when using oxidized oil in the diet.

2013 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Evaluation of adding Synergen to wheat-based diets on the performance, metabolizable energy, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chicks
R. Samuel, K. McClain, M. Paul, M. Ford, A. Cantor, A. Pescatore, J. Pierce, T. Ao 
Synergen is a naturally fermented product designed to allow for a more flexible approach to feed formulation. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate additions of Synergen to normal and reformulated wheat-based diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility of birds. The eight dietary treatments represented a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement of two nutrient levels and four enzyme levels. Day old male broiler chicks (384) were randomly assigned to eight treatments with eight replicate pens of six chicks per cage and were raised for 21 d. The normal ME diet was formulated to provide all nutrients equal or greater than the recommendations of NRC (1994). The low ME diet was reformulated to contain 0.1% less available P and total calcium and 75 kcal/kg less ME than the normal ME diets. Synergen was added at 0, 200, 400 or 600 g/T. Acid-insoluble ash was added to all the diets as an internal marker for the measurement of ileum nutrient digestibility. There were no significant ME*enzyme interactions for ADG, ADFI, or G:F. ADG tended to be (P=0.08) and was lower (P<0.01) for chicks fed the low ME diets compared to the normal ME diets for weeks 1 and 2, respectively. ADG tended (P<0.09) to be improved by 400 g/T Synergen inclusion regardless of ME level. ADFI tended (P=0.06) to be greater when diets contained 0 or 600 g/T enzyme, however feed efficiency was only improved by 400 g/T of Synergen during weeks 1 and 2. The digestibility of energy (~80%) was greatest (P<0.02) from diets containing 200 g/T Synergen. A significant ME*enzyme interaction indicated that there was no effect of Synergen on the energy digestibility of normal ME diets. The digestibility of the essential amino acids for poultry, except Met and Ser, were increased by Synergen inclusion up to 400 g/T. There was no significant effect of the enzyme level on the ileal digestibility of P which was lower (P<0.02) from the low ME diets compared to the normal diets (42.3% vs. 48.3%). Similarly, Ca digestibility was lower (P<0.04) from the low ME diets (30.3% vs. 40.0%) compared to the normal diets. Inclusion of 600 g/T resulted in a decrease in amino acid, Ca, Zn, Na and energy digestibility. Therefore, Synergen should be added to wheat-based diets at not more than 400 g/T to maximize nutrient release.

2012 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of dietary supplementing organic minerals and antioxidant on the performance of broiler chicks fed oxidized oil.
T. Ao, J. L. Pierce, K. A. Dawson, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, and M. J. Ford
Endogenous antioxidants such as vitamin E and glutathione are known very important factors to diminish the deleterious effect due to feeding oxidized fats. EconomasE is a proprietary blend of ingredients that maximizes antioxidant status of the animal and reduces the requirement of vitamin E. Trace minerals such as Se, Zn, Cu and Mn are involved in anti-oxidation because they are essential component of many antioxidant enzymes. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing EconomasE and organic minerals (Bioplex, Alltech Inc.) in broiler diets on the performance of broiler chicks fed oxidized oil. Dietary treatments consisted of a 2 × 2 factorial structure with 2 kinds of soybean oil (oxidized or normal) and 2 feeding strategies (with or without EconomasE plus organic minerals). EconomasE replaced 80% vitamin E and 100% Se in control diet. The supplemental level of organic minerals including Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe was equivalent to 25% that of inorganic source in control diet. A total of 1056 chicks were raised in 12 replicate floor pens of 22 chicks per pen. Chicks were randomly assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments. Body weight gain and feed consumption was monitored weekly and corrected for mortality. Breast meat samples were taken at the end of the 5 week trial for the analysis of minerals and vitamin E. Replacing inorganic mineral and vitamin E with organic mineral and EconomasE increased weight gain (P < 0.05). No negative effect of oxidized oil on the growth performance was observed in this trial. The breast muscle from chicks fed EconomasE plus organic mineral had higher (P < 0.01) Se content than control group. No dietary effect on breast muscle VE and other trace mineral (Zn, Cu, Mn) content was detected. The growth performance data from this trial showed the beneficial effect of adding EconomasE plus organic minerals in broiler diet with or without oxidized oil.

2012 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Relative bioavailability value of zinc proteinate (Bioplex Zn®) compared with zinc methionine for chicks
T. Ao, J. Pierce, M. Paul, K. Brennan, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, M. Ford, Karl Dawson.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Zn® (Zn proteinate) compared with zinc methionine for broiler chicks. A total of 336 1-day old male broiler chicks was housed in an environmentally controlled room for 3wk. Dietary treatments were: corn-soybean meal basal diet without zinc supplementation or the basal diet with three supplemental levels of Zn (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) either from Bioplex Zn® or from zinc methionine. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of seven diets. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the trial, two birds from each cage were randomly selected and euthanized with argon gas to collect tibia samples for the analysis of zinc. Small intestine samples were also collected, flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in -80°C later for the analysis of gene expression of metallothionein by using real time PCR. No significant effect of zinc source or level on overall growth performance of chicks was found. The relative gene expression level of metallothionein in both duodenum and jejunum tissues was significantly increased when chicks were fed diets with the highest supplemental level of zinc from both zinc sources. The tibia zinc content was increased linearly (P <0.01) as dietary supplemental level of zinc was increased. Multiple linear regression of tibia zinc content on dietary supplemental level of zinc from Bioplex Zn&reg; or zinc methionine resulted in a following equation: Y = 351 + 14.8 X1 + 11.5 X2 (r2 = 0. 94, P<0.01), in which Y represents zinc content in tibia ash, X1 represents dietary supplemental level of zinc as Bioplex Zn&reg; and X2 represents dietary supplemental level of zinc as zinc methionine. The slope ratio from this equation indicated that the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Zn&reg; was129% compared with zinc methionine.

Early life trace mineral nutrition affects growth performance and mineral deposition in broilers through 21 d.
R. Samuel, T. Ao, M. Paul, M. Ford, K. Brennan, M. Spry, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, J. Pierce
Animals respond to nutrient restriction in general by increasing absorption rates and utilization efficiency. Nutrient availability in early life may interact directly with genes and their regulatory elements to alter patterns of growth and gene expression. To evaluate the long-term effects of posthatch trace mineral (Zn, Cu, and Mn) nutrition in early life on growth performance and tissue mineral content through 21 d, 480 d-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups. Diets consisted of rations with Zn, Cu, and Mn provided at 100% (normal, N) or 20% (low, L) of NRC (1994) recommendations from inorganic or Bioplex (Alltech, Inc.) sources for a total of six dietary treatments. All diets were based on corn-soy diet and formulated to provide all the nutrients except the trace minerals of interest according to the NRC (1994) recommendations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 1, 5, 15, & 21 post-hatch. On d 5 and at the end of the trial, liver and tibiae were collected and analyzed for mineral content. Weight gain (g/bird) and body weight on d 15 and 21 were negatively impacted by switching from N to L diets. Weight gain (d 5-15, d 0-21) of chicks fed only the L Bioplex diet was greater (p=0.01) than chicks which received only the N Bioplex diet, indicating a negative impact of excess trace minerals. Similarly, weight gain tended (p<0.10) to be greater (d 0-21) from chicks fed only the inorganic L diet compared to N diet. Feed intake (d 15-21) was lower (p=0.03) for birds switched from inorganic N to L diet. Overall feed:gain tended (p=0.07) to be improved by feeding L diets and was not different between the mineral sources. On d 21, liver and tibia Mn concentrations were greater in chicks fed only N Bioplex diets than chicks fed L diets. Liver Zn concentration was greater (p=0.03) in chicks fed Bioplex diets (331 vs. 311 ppm) compared to chicks fed inorganic diets. Gene expression patterns were altered and growth rate and feed efficiency of broiler chicks was improved by providing the trace minerals Zn, Cu, and Mn at 20% of current recommendations as Bioplex minerals.

Impact of early-life restricted mineral nutrition on mRNA profiles of the jejunum in 21-day old broilers
K.M. Brennan, R.M. Hall, R.S. Samuel, T. Ao, M. Ford, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce
Chicken adaptation to low-nutrient diets, especially in early life, has long been recognized. However, the impact of restricting trace minerals in early life on gene expression is unknown. To evaluate the impact of restricted mineral (Zn, Cu, Mn) nutrition in early life on gene expression patterns in the jejunum, broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups. Diets consisted of a corn-soy ration with organic Zn, Cu, and Mn (Bio-Plex®, Alltech Inc.) provided at 100% (normal, N) or 20% (low, L) of NRC requirements. Treatments consisted of N and/or L diets fed in 2 intervals (d 1-5, d 6-21) as follows: 1) Control (N-N), 2) N-L, or 3) L-L. On d 21, birds were euthanized, jejunum tissue was collected, and gene expression profiles were analyzed using the Affymetrix Chicken Genome Array. Compared with N-N birds, N-L and L-L birds had lower mRNA levels (P<0.05) of metallothionein 3 (-1.7 and -1.78fold, respectively) and 4 (-1.81 and -2.27-fold, respectively). Regardless of diet consumed d 1-5, birds fed the L diet d 6-21 experienced downregulation (P<0.05) of zinc transport proteins 6 and 10, which function to lower intracellular zinc. ZIP10 (Zrt-, Irt-like protein 10) was unchanged in N-L birds but was upregulated 1.47-fold (P=0.02) in L-L birds. Expression of digestive enzymes, such as sucrase and alpha-glucosidase, was upregulated 2.07-fold and 1.21-fold (P≤0.05), respectively, in N-L birds but remained unchanged in L-L birds. These results indicate that mineral restriction can result in changes in expression of genes involved in mineral transport and mineral ion binding in the jejunum. In addition, feeding either N or L mineral levels d 1-5 results in differences in gene expression levels at d21, even when birds are fed the same diet d 6-21.

2011 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Evaluation of organic Cu (Bioplex Cu) as a Cu source for chicks. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, M. Paul, and M.J. Ford. 
An experiment was conducted to evaluate Bioplex Cu (copper proteinate) as an organic copper source for broiler chicks. A total of 336 1-d old male broiler chicks were used and housed in starter cages in an environmentally controlled room for 2wk. Feed and water were supplied on an ad libitum basis. Dietary treatments were: corn-soybean meal basal diet without Cu supplementation or the basal diet with 3 supplemental  levels of Cu (150, 250 and 350 mg/kg) either from Bioplex Cu or from analytical CuSO4·5H2O. All chicks were fed basal diet from d 1 to d 5. At d 6, chicks were weighed individually and randomly assigned to 7 diets such that the average weight across dietary treatments was similar. There were 8 replicate cages of 6 chicks for each dietary treatment. Chicks had free access to treatment diets from d6 to d14. Body weight and feed intake were recorded during this time period. At the end of the trial, 2 birds from each cage were randomly selected and killed with argon gas to collect liver samples for the analysis of Cu. Chicks fed diets with a supplementation of 350 mg/kg Cu from both sources had lower (< 0.01) feed intake, weight gain and gain to feed ratio compared with those fed basal diet or basal plus 150 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. Liver Cu concentration increased linearly (< 0.01) as level of Cu in the diet increased. However, the increasing rate of liver Cu concentration was greater for chicks fed Bioplex Cu than those fed copper sulfate. Multiple linear regression of liver Cu concentration on actual Cu consumption of Bioplex Cu and copper sulfate resulted in a following equation: Y = 2.66 X1 + 1.93 X2 – 45.3 (r2 = 0.79, < 0.05), in which Y represents liver Cu concentration, X1 represents actual consumption of Cu as Bioplex Cu and X2 represents actual consumption of Cu as Cu sulfate. The slope ratio from this equation indicated that the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Cu was138% compared with reagent-grade Cu sulfate. 

2010 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effect of organic trace mineral sources on production and egg quality of white egg laying hens. 
L.M. Macalintal, A.H. Cantor, T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of supplementing white laying hens with graded levels of organic and inorganic sources of Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se on egg production and quality were studied. The organic sources used were proteinates of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn (Bioplex, Alltech, Inc.) and selenium yeast (SelPlex, Alltech, Inc.). Seven treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal diets alone (basal) or supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50, or 100% of the NRC (1994) requirements provided by either inorganic salts or organic sources. Selenium was provided at 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg as either sodium selenite or selenium yeast in the diet containing 25, 50 and 100% of the NRC requirements, respectively. At each stage of growth or production, other nutrient levels were adjusted to meet the dietary requirements. Eight replicate groups of 16 chicks at day 1 of age were randomly assigned to each treatment. At 17 weeks of age, pullets were transferred to laying cages using 12 pullets per replicate and the mineral treatments were continued for 28 weeks of production. Egg quality parameters were assayed monthly on samples of six eggs per replicate group. During the 28 weeks of production, overall body weight gain (465 g/hen), feed intake (93.0 g/hen/d) and hen-day egg production rate (85.0%) were not affected by treatments. During Weeks 17-20, hens fed organic minerals at 50% of the NRC requirement had higher egg production (94.2%) than those fed the basal diet (90.3%) or inorganic minerals at the 25% level (90.4%). Average egg weight at 26 wk of production was significantly higher for hens fed organic minerals at the 100% rate compared with all other treatments. Compared with the basal treatment, no improvements in shell breaking strength, % shell and specific gravity were observed due to mineral supplementation.

2010 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of supplementing different forms of copper in broiler diets on the efficacy of phytase. 
T. Ao, J. L. Pierce, K. A. Dawson, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, and M. J. Ford. 
Studies showed that supplementing 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate in broiler diets adversely affects retention of P when diets are supplemented with phytase. Two trials were designed to investigate the effects of supplementing 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or Cu proteinate (Bioplex® Cu, Alltech Inc.) on the efficacy of enzymatic feed supplements with phytase activity in chicks. In trial 1, chicks were fed a corn-soy low P diet with supplementation of Allzyme SSF® alone or with 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or Bioplex® Cu. Seven replicate pens of 22 chicks were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments. Chicks were raised in floor pens for 6 wks. Allzyme SSF® improved (< 0.01) performance of chicks. The growth rate of chicks given both Allzyme SSF® and 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate was lower (< 0.01) than that of chicks given Allzyme SSF® alone. In trial 2, chicks were fed a corn-soy low P diet with pure phytase from fungal source added alone or with 125 or 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate or 250 mg/kg Cu as Bioplex® Cu. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments. Chicks were housed in starter cages for 3 wks. At the end of trial, fecal samples were collected for the assay of P retention using Cr2O3 as a marker. Phytase improved (< 0.01) performance and P retention. Chicks fed diets with 250 mg/kg Cu in either form had lower (< 0.01) feed intake and weight gain compared with chicks fed phytase alone or plus 125 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. The P retention rate from chicks given 250 mg/kg Cu as sulfate was lower (< 0.01) than that from chicks supplemented with phytase plus125 mg/kg Cu as sulfate. The results from these trials suggest that supplementing high levels (250 mg/kg) of Cu as sulfate in broiler diets containing phytase had detrimental effect on the efficacy of phytase, which could be overcome by using Cu proteinate.

Influence of organic trace mineral sources on production and egg quality of brown egg laying hens. 
L.M. Macalintal, A.H. Cantor, T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, M.J. Ford, and H.D. Gillespie.
An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of feeding graded levels of organic and inorganic sources of Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se on egg production and quality. The organic forms used were proteinates of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) and selenium yeast (Sel-Plex®,Alltech, Inc.). The seven treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal diets alone (control) and supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements provided by either inorganic salts or organic sources. Selenium was provided at 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 mg/kg as either sodium selenite or selenium yeast in diets containing 25, 50 and 100 per cent of the NRC requirements, respectively. The levels of other nutrients were adjusted to meet the requirements for each stage of growth or production. Eight replicate groups of 16 chicks, 1 day of age, were randomly assigned to each treatment. At 16 weeks of age pullets were transferred to laying cages using 12 pullets per replicate and the mineral treatments were continued for 28 weeks of production. Body weight, feed intake, egg production rate, eggshell breaking strength, specific gravity, and per cent shell were not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding both organic and inorganic Se sources increased egg Se concentration, compared with the control treatment. Egg Se concentration was significantly higher (< 0.001) for hens fed selenium yeast compared with those fed inorganic sodium selenite (0.15 vs. 0.12 μg/g fresh weight). The results show that use of organic Se is useful in enhancing the Se concentration of eggs. 

2009 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of supplementing different levels and sources of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.C. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
Studies in our lab demonstrated that supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soybean meal diet is equivalent to supplementing 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in terms of growth performance and tissue mineral status of chicks. This study was to compare the effects of supplementing different levels of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet provided as zinc sulfate or Bioplex Zn® on the performance and tibia Zn content of chicks during 42d period. Chicks were reared in floor pens in an environmentally controlled room and were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy control diet without addition of Zn; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 3) control + 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®; 5) control + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. A total of 800 chicks were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments with eight replicate pens of 20 chicks. In first two week period, dietary supplementation of 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® significantly increased (P<0.01) weight gain of chicks compared with other treatment groups. The gain to feed ratio of chicks fed diet containing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® was higher (P=0.057) than chicks fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. In entire six week growing period, no difference was found among all treatment groups in terms of growth performance. The chicks fed corn-soy control diet had significantly lower (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets. The chicks fed diet with a supplementation of 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had significantly higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. These results indicate that supplementing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet may have better growth promoting effects for broiler chicks during starter period than supplementing 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate.

2009 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of supplementing different levels and sources of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue mineral status of broiler chicks.
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.C. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford. 
Studies in our lab demonstrated that supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soybean meal diet is equivalent to supplementing 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in terms of growth performance and tissue mineral status of chicks. This study was to compare the effects of supplementing different levels of Zn in corn-soybean meal diet provided as zinc sulfate or Bioplex Zn® on the performance and tibia Zn content of chicks during 42d period. Chicks were reared in floor pens in an environmentally controlled room and were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy control diet without addition of Zn; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 3) control + 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®; 5) control + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. A total of 800 chicks was randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments with eight replicate pens of 20 chicks. In first two week period, dietary supplementation of 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® significantly increased (P<0.01) weight gain of chicks compared with other treatment groups. The gain to feed ratio of chicks fed diet containing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® was higher (P=0.057) than chicks fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn®. In entire six week growing period, no difference was found among all treatment groups in terms of growth performance. The chicks fed corn-soy control diet had significantly lower (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets. The chicks fed diet with a supplementation of 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had significantly higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content than those fed other treatment diets except those fed diet including 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. These results indicate that supplementing 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet may have better growth promoting effects for broiler chicks during starter period than supplementing 80 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate. 

2009 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of feeding reduced levels of organic minerals (Bioplex®) on the development of white layer pullets. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral in proteinate form (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) on white layer pullet development. Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 1-day of age, were randomly assigned to each of five dietary treatments. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitum access to feed and water. Treatments consisted of feeding corn-soybean meal based starter and grower diets alone (control), supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of proteinates or 100 per cent of the NRC requirements in the form of inorganic salts. The excreta samples were collected at week 15 of bird age. At 17 wk of age, the trial was ended. The birds were weighed individually for the measurement of uniformity. A total of 10 birds from each treatment were randomly selected for collection of liver and tibia samples. The concentration of Cu, Mn and Zn in the tissue and excreta samples was analyzed. There were no differences among all dietary treatments in body weight, feed intake, uniformity and liver mineral content. The tibias and excreta samples from birds fed control diet with no mineral supplementation had significantly lower (P<0.01) Zn and Mn concentration than those from birds fed other diets. The tibias from birds fed 100% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex® had higher (P<0.01) Mn concentration than those from birds fed 25% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex®. The excreta samples from birds fed 25% level of supplementation as Bioplex® had lower (P<0.01) Zn and Mn concentration than those from the birds fed other diets except control diet. The results indicate that 25% NRC level of supplementation as Bioplex® in pullet diets can reduce the mineral excretion, but has no negative influence on performance and tissue mineral concentration in comparison with 100% NRC level of supplementation as inorganic salts.

2008 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral proteinates (Bioplex®) to brown layer pullets during development. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford. 
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding reduced levels of trace mineral proteinates (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) on pullet growth and development. Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 1-day of age, were assigned to each of 5 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block experimental design. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitum access to feed and tap water. Treatments consisted of feeding corn- and soybean meal-based starter and grower diets alone (control), supplemented with Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of proteinates or 100% of the NRC requirements in the form of inorganic salts. Body weight and feed consumption were measured every 4 weeks. At 16 wk of age, the trial was ended. The birds were weighed individually for the measurement of uniformity. Two birds from each cage with a total of 10 birds from each treatment were randomly selected and euthanized for collection of liver, tibia, and femur samples for the analysis of Cu, Mn and Zn. There were no differences among all dietary treatments in body weight, feed intake, uniformity, and liver mineral content. Tibias and femurs from birds fed control diet with no mineral supplementation had significantly lower (< 0.01) Zn and Mn concentrations than those from birds fed other treatment diets. Tibias and femurs from birds fed the 100% level of supplementation as Bioplex® had the highest Zn concentration among all treatment groups. Tibias and femurs from birds fed the 25% level of supplementation as the proteinates had the same mineral concentration as those from the birds fed 100% level of supplementation as inorganic salts. The results from this trial indicate that 25% NRC level of supplementation as the proteinates in pullet diets has no negative influence on performance and tissue mineral concentration in comparison with 100% NRC level of supplementation as inorganic salts.

2008 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Requirement of Zn provided as organic Zn for broiler chicks. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M. Paul.
Studies in our lab demonstrated that optimal growth performance of chicks in starter phase can be reached by supplementing 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) in corn-soy basal diet. This study was to investigate the dietary supplemental level of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® on the performance of broiler chicks in entire period (starter and grower). One-day-old broiler chicks were housed in floor pens with new litter in an environmentally controlled room for 42d. Birds were given ad libitium access to feed and water. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy diet (control) without addition of Zn in entire period; 2) control + 40 ppm Zn  (NRC level) as zinc sulfate in entire period; 3) control + 12 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate in entire period; 4) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase + no Zn in grower phase; 5) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire period; 6) control + 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase + 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in grower phase. A total of 660 chicks was randomly assigned to each of six dietary treatments with five replicate pens of 22 chicks. Chicks fed dietary treatments 1), 3) and 4) showed Zn deficiency symptom with lower (P<0.01) feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content comparing with other treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate had the same effects on feed intake, weight gain and tibia Zn content of chicks as dietary supplementation of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire period. Chicks fed diet supplemented with 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in starter phase and 24 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in grower phase had the same feed intake and weight gain, but higher (P<0.01) tibia Zn content comparing with chicks fed diet supplemented with 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in entire phase. These results indicate that the supplemental level of 12 ppm Zn as Bioplex Zn® in corn-soy diet has the same effects on performance and tibia Zn content of broiler chicks as supplemental level of 40 ppm Zn as zinc sulfate.

Evaluation of organic Mn (Bioplex Mn®) as a Mn source for chicks. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M. Paul.
A study was conducted to evaluate Bioplex Mn® (a chelated Mn proteinate) as an organic manganese source for broiler chicks. Corn-soybean meal diet without Mn supplementation, containing 26 mg/kg Mn, was used as a basal diet. One day-old male broiler chicks were housed in starter cages with plastic covered feeders in an environmentally controlled room for 3wk. Feed and water were supplied on an ad libitum basis. Treatments consisted of feeding the basal diet alone or with three supplemental levels of Mn (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg) either from Bioplex Mn® or from analytical MnSO4•H2O. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of seven dietary treatments. Manganese supplementation from both sources linearly decreased (P<0.01) weight gain and feed intake of chicks and linearly increased (P<0.01) manganese concentration in tibia, liver and kidney. Slope-ratio analysis regressing weight gain and tissue Mn concentration on Mn intake indicated the relative bioavailability value of Bioplex Mn® compared with manganese sulfate were 200% and 139% respectively.

Trace mineral concentrations in laying hen manure as affected by dietary organic and inorganic mineral supplements. 
A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, T. Ao, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effect of varying levels and sources (organic vs. inorganic) of trace mineral supplements on trace mineral concentrations in manure was studied using a commercial strain of brown shell laying hen (Hy-Line Brown). Eight replicate groups of 16 replacement pullets, 2 wk of age, were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, using a randomized block experimental design. Pullets were housed in cages and given ad libitumaccess to feed and tap water. Trace mineral mixes that contained Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn at 25, 50 or 100 per cent of the NRC (1994) requirements in the form of inorganic salts or proteinates (Bioplex®, Alltech, Inc.) were added to corn-soybean meal-based grower and layer diets in a 3 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments . At 16 wk of age, the number of pullets was reduced to 12 per replicate, the pullets were transferred to layer cages (2 per cage) and switched to layer diets, and the photostimulation program was initiated. At 29 wk of age, six hens per treatment were placed in metabolism cages and manure was collected for 48 hours. Manure samples were dried, ground and analyzed for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry. Manure concentrations of Cu, Mn and Zn were significantly increased by the 100% level of supplementation (vs. 25 and 50%) and were unaffected by the source of minerals. Manure Fe levels were unaffected by dietary treatments. Respective concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in manure (DM basis) were 39, 813, 145 and 230 mg/kg for hens supplemented with the 100% level and 28, 747, 94 and 165 mg/kg for hens supplemented with the 25% level of trace minerals. The results indicate the dietary level, but not the source, of the trace minerals used with practical diets influences the concentrations of trace minerals in the manure.

2007 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Investigation of antagonism and absorption of zinc and copper when different forms of minerals were fed to chicks. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, R. Power, A.J. Pescatore, K.A. Dawson, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, and B.L. Shafer.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antagonism of Zn and Cu when organic or inorganic forms of these minerals were fed to chicks. A practical corn-soybean meal diet without Cu and Zn supplementation, containing 31 mg Zn /kg diet and 5.4 mg Cu /kg diet, was used as a basal diet. Bioplex Zn® (a chelated Zn proteinate) and Bioplex Cu® (a chelated Cu proteinate) were used as the organic sources. Reagent grade sulfate salts provided the inorganic sources of Zn and Cu. Supplements provided 20 ppm Zn and 8 ppm Cu. Ten groups of six day-old male broilers were assigned to each of seven treatments. Tap water with no detectable Zn and Cu (<0.001 ppm) and feed were supplied on an ad libitum basis during the 3 wk trial. Treatments consisted of the following dietary supplementation: 1) none, 2) inorganic Cu, 3) inorganic Zn, 4) inorganic Zn + inorganic Cu, 5) inorganic Zn + Bioplex Cu, 6) Bioplex Zn + inorganic Cu, and 7) Bioplex Zn + Bioplex Cu. The luminal mucus layer of the chick’s duodenum was separated from the mucosa by lling the lumen with agar to observe the Zn and Cu uptake of mucus in the agar cast and the mucosa. Weight gain and feed intake were increased by Cu (P<0.01) and were further increased by Zn or Zn + Cu (P<0.01). Gain to feed ratio was decreased (P<0.01) by Zn + Cu provided as inorganic forms but not as the organic forms, compared with Zn alone. Zinc supplementation increased (P<0.01) tibia and plasma Zn concentrations. Tibia Zn and Cu levels were higher (P<0.01) for the organic Zn + Cu treatment than for the inorganic Zn + Cu treatment. The Cu content in the mucosa of chicks fed both organic Zn and Cu was signicantly higher (P<0.01) than that of chicks given no supplementation or both inorganic Zn and Cu. This suggests that the Bioplex form of Cu is more efficiently absorbed from the lumen and that the antagonism between Zn and Cu can be avoided through using proteinated  forms of these minerals.