Kyle McLeod

Associate Professor
Instruction
Research

kmcleod@uky.edu
Phone (859) 257-2892
Fax (859) 257-3412

Department of Animal and Food Sciences
806 W. P. Garrigus Building
Lexington KY 40546-0215

Specialties
Nutrition

Professional Profile

Associate Professor

Education

Ph.D. -  University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY. September 1987 to May 1995. Animal Science (Ruminant Nutrition).

M.S. -  Texas Tech University, College of Agriculture, Lubbock, TX. September 1985 to May 1987. Animal Science (Ruminant Nutrition).

B.S. -  Texas Tech University, College of Agriculture, Lubbock, TX. September 1979 to May 1985. Animal Science.

Professional Employment

Associate Professor of Animal Science:
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
July 2006 to current.

Assistant Professor of Animal Science:
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
November 2001 to June 2006.

Research Animal Scientist:
USDA, ARS 
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD.
January 1995 to December 2001. Research Scientist, CRIS Leader Energy Metabolism Unit.

Graduate Research Assistant:
University of Kentucky, Department of Animal Sciences, Lexington, KY.
September 1987 to December 1994.

Laboratory Technician III:
Texas Tech University, Department of Animal Science, Lubbock, TX.
January 1985 to August 1987.

Publications

Refereed Journal Publications

Kenney, N. M., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2017. Direct-fed microbials alter ruminal in vitro gas production and fermentation with a high-concentrate diet. J. Applied Anim. Res. (submitted).

 
Bruno, K. A., E. S. Vanzant, A. W. Altman, M. Kudupoje, and K. R. McLeod. 2017. A novel objective chute score interacts with monensin to affect growth of receiving cattle. J. Anim. Sci. (submitted)
 
de Godoy, M. R. C., K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2017. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to mature, overweight dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycemia, and body weight. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (In Press)
 
Bruno, K. A., E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2016. Relationships of a novel objective chute score and exit velocity with growth performance of receiving cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 94:4819-4831.
 
Baldwin, R. L., A. V. Capuco, C. M. Evock-Clover, P. Grossi, R. K. Choudhary, E.S. Vanzant, T. H. Elsasser, G. Bertoni, E. Trevisi, G.E. Aiken, and K. R. McLeod. 2016. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following. J. Dairy Sci. 99:7574-7589.
 
Kenney, N. M., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2015. Impact of direct-fed microbials on growth performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, lactate utilization, and digestibility in steers fed a high concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. 93:2336-48.
 
Kenney, N. M., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2014. Effect of direct-fed microbials on utilization of degradable intake protein in receiving steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 95:93-102.
 
Kim, D. H., K. R. McLeod, A. F. Koontz, A. P. Foote, J. L. Klotz, and D. L. Harmon. 2015. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique. Animal 9:58-66.
 
Godoy, M. R., C. E. Conway, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2015. Influence of feeding a fish oil-containing diet to young, lean, adult dogs: effects on lipid metabolites, postprandial glycaemia and body weight. Arch Anim Nutr. 69:499-514.
 
Egert, A. M., J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod and David L. Harmon. 2014. Development of a methodology to measure the effect of ergot alkaloids on forestomach motility using real-time wireless telemetry. Front Chem. 2:90.
 
Kim, D. H., K. R. McLeod, A. F. Koontz, A. P. Foote, J. L. Klotz, and D. L. Harmon. 2015. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique. Animal 9:58-66.
 
Koontz, A. F., D. H. Kim, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz, and D. L. Harmon. 2015. Effect of fescue toxicosis on whole body energy and nitrogen balance, in situ degradation and ruminal passage rates in Holstein steers. Anim. Prod. Sci. 55:988-998.
 
Kim D. H., K. M. Mizingab, J. C. Kubeb, K. G. Friesen, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2014. Influence of monensin and lauric acid distillate or palm oil on in vitro fermentation kinetics and metabolites produced using forage and high concentrate substrates. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 189:19-29.
 
Holder, V. B., S. W. El-Kadi, J. M. Tricarico, E. S. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. The effects of crude protein concentration and slow release urea on nitrogen metabolism in Holstein steers. Archives of Animal Nutrition. 67:93-103.
 
Koontz, A. F, D. H. Kim, A. P. Foote, L. P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 3881-3888.
 
Kim, D. H, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz, A. F. Koontz, A. P. Foote, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. Evaluation of a rapid determination of fasting heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 4267-4276.
 
Foote, A. P., L. P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, D. H. Kim, A. F. Koontz, K. R. McLeod, L. P. Bush, F. N. Schrick, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 5366-5378.
 
Conway, C., M. R. Godoy, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. The effects of graded arginine levels on nitrogen metabolism in the lean adult dog. J. Anim. Sci. Adv. 3:1-12.
 
Martin, S. K., D. L. Harmon, C. E. Conway, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Influence of dietary histidine on basophil release, circulating concentration, and urinary excretion of histamine in domestic felines. Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 10:289-299.
 
Martin, S. K., D. L. Harmon, C. E. Conway, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Dietary effects of magnesium on histamine metabolism and urine acidity in domestic felines. Amer. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 7:186-193.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C. C., D. G. Burrin, N. B. Kristensen, J. J. Holst, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves. Animal. 6: 1985-1997.
 
Foote, A. P., D. L. Harmon, K. R. Brown, J. R. Strickland, K. R. McLeod, L. P. Bush, and J. L. Klotz. 2012. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1603-1609.
 
Koontz, A. F., L. P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod, F. N. Schrick, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90:914-921.
 
Bohaty, R. E., M. R. C. de Godoy, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. The effects of added sulfur amino acids, threonine, and an ideal amino acid ratio on nitrogen metabolism in mature, overweight dogs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 66:39-49.
 
Reeder, T, G. Hibbard, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2011. Dietary Lysine: Calorie ratios and their influence on nitrogen metabolism and digestibility in moderately obese mature dogs. American J Anim. and Vet. Sci. 6:45-54.
 
Taylor-Edwards,C. C., D. G. Burrin, K. R. McLeod, J. J. Holst, and D. L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves. J. Dairy Sci. 94:888-898.
 
Taylor-Edwards,C. C., D. G. Burrin, J. C. Matthews, K. R. McLeod, J. J. Holst, and D. L. Harmon. 2010. Expression of proglucagon and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor mRNA in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and the influence of energy intake. Dom. Anim. Endo. 29:181-193.
 
Riddell, J. B., D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2010. Addition of a Bacillus based probiotic to the diet of preruminant calves: Influence on growth, health, and blood parameters. Intern. J. Appl. Res. Vet. Med. 8:78-85.
 
Xu, M., M. Rinker, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon. 2010. Yucca schidigera extract decreases in vitro methane production in a variety of forages and diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 159:18-26.
 
Koontz, A. F., S. W. El-Kadi, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, J. C. Matthews, J. A. Boling, and K. R. McLeod. 2010. Effect of ractopamine on whole body and splanchnic energy metabolism in Holstein steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 90:77-85.
 
Liao, S, F., D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, and J. C. Matthews. 2010. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate. J. Anim. Sci. 88:306-314.
 
El-Kadi, S. W., R. L. Baldwin, K. R. McLeod, N. E. Sunny, B. J. Bequette. 2009. Glutamate is the major anaplerotic substrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of isolated rumen epithelial and duodenal mucosal cells from beef cattle. J. Nutr. 139(5):869-875.
 
Liao, S. F., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, J. C. Matthews. 2009. Ruminal and abomasal starch hydrolystate infusions selectively decrease the expression of cationic amino acid transporter mrna by small intestinal epithelia of forage-fed beef steers. J. Dairy Sci. 92:1124-1135.
 
Taylor-Edwards, N. A. Elam, S. E. Kitts, K. R. McLeod, D. E. Axe, E. S. Vanzant, N. B. Kristensen, and D. L. Harmon. 2009. Influence of slow-release urea on nitrogen and portal-drained visceral metabolism in growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:200-208.
 
Taylor-Edwards, N. A. Elam, S. E. Kitts, K. R. McLeod, D. E. Axe, E. S. Vanzant, N. B. Kristensen, and D. L. Harmon. 2009. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:209-221.
 
El-Kadi, S. W., K. R. McLeod, N. A. Elam, S. E. Kitts, C. C. Taylor, D. L. Harmon, and E. S. Vanzant. 2008. Nutrient net absorption across the portal-drained viscera of forage fed steers: Quantitative assessment and application to a nutritional prediction model. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2277-2287.
 
Liao, S. F., M. J. Alman, E. S. Vanzant, E. D. Miles, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, J. C. Matthews. 2008. Basal expression of nucleoside transporter mRNA differs among small intestinal epithelia of beef steers and is differentially altered by ruminal or abomasal infusion of starch hydrolysate. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1570-1584.
 
Kitts, S. E., J. C. Matthews, G. L. Sipe, K. K. Schillo, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, R. L. Baldwin, and K. R. McLeod. 2007. Effects of chlortetracycline and Synovex-S on growth rate and plasma growth hormone (GH) and thyroid hormone concentrations following administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone in beef steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 87:327-341.
 
Baldwin, R. L. and K. R. McLeod. 2007. Influence of abomasal carbohydrates on subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric adipose lipogenic and lipolytic rates in growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2271-2282.
 
McLeod, K. R., R. L. Baldwin, VI, M. B. Solomon, R. G. Baumann. 2007. Influence of ruminal and postruminal carbohydrate infusion on visceral organ mass and adipose tissue accretion in growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2256-2270.
 
Tricario, J. M., M. D. Abney, M. L. Galyean, K. C. Hanson, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2007. Effects of dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85:802-811.
 
Yamka, R. M., K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, H. C. Freetly, and W. D. Schoenherr. 2007. The impact of dietary protein source on observed and predicted metabolizable energy of dry extruded dog foods. J. Anim. Sci. 85:204-212.
 
Kitts, S. E., D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2005. Effects of chlortetracycline and Revalor-S on growth performance and carcass quality traits of finishing beef steers. J. Animal and Veterinary Advances. 5:70-76.
 
Tricarico, J. M., J. D. Johnson, K. A. Dawson, K. C. Hanson, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2005. The effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on ruminal fermentation and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Animal Science. 81:365-374.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz, and R. N. Heitmann. 2004. Rumen development, intestinal growth, and hepatic metabolism in the pre- and post- weaning ruminant. J. Dairy Sci. 87(E. Suppl.):E55-E65. .
 
Rodriguez, S. M., K. C. Guimaraes, J. C. Matthews, K. R. McLeod, R. L. Baldwin, VI, and D. L. Harmon. 2004. Influence of abomasal carbohydrates on small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter activity and abundance in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3015:3023.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, K. R. McLeod, and A. V. Capuco. 2004. Visceral tissue growth and proliferation during the bovine lactation cycle. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2977-2986.
 
Moallem, U., G. E. Dahl, E. K. Duffy, A. V. Capuco, K. R. McLeod, R. L. Baldwin, and R. A. Erdman. 2004. Bovine somatotropin and rumen undegradable protein effects on organ and tissue weights and components of growth of prepubertal dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3869-3880.
 
McLeod, K. R., R. L. Baldwin, VI, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, and M. N. Streeter. 2003. Effects of subtherapeutic chlortetracycline and dietary protein on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration in growing bovine. J. Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2(9):531-535
 
Van Kessel, J. S., P. C. Nedoluha, A. Williams-Campbell, R. L. Baldwin, and K. R. McLeod. 2002. Effects of ruminal and post-ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate or glucose on the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract in growing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3027-3034
 
Capuco, A. V., D. L. Wood, R. Baldwin, K. McLeod, M. J. Paape. 2001. Mammary cell number, proliferation and apoptosis during bovine lactation cycle: Relation to Milk production and effect of bST. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2177-2187.
 
Greenfield, R. L. Baldwin, VI, R. A. Erdman, and K. R. McLeod. 2001. Ruminal fermentation and intestinal flow of nutrients by lactating cows consuming brown midrib silage. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2469-2477.
 
Bauer, M. L., D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. B. Huntington. 2001. Influence of ∀-linked glucose on jejunal sodium-glucose cotransport activity in ruminants. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 129:577-583.
 
Harmon, D. L. and K. R. McLeod. 2001. Glucose uptake and regulation by intestinal tissues: Implications and whole body energetics. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E. Suppl.):E59-E72.
 
Tine, M. A., K. R. McLeod, R. A. Erdman, and R. L. Baldwin, VI. 2001. Effects of brown midrib corn silage variety on energy and nitrogen balance in lactating and dry, nonpregnant dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:885-895.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, K. R. McLeod, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, and M. N. Streeter. 2000. Influence of chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on visceral organ mass in growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 78:3169-3176.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, and K. R. McLeod. 2000. Effects of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio and metabolizable energy intake on isolated rumen epithelial cell substrate metabolism in vitro. J. Anim. Sci. 78:771-783.
 
McLeod, K. R., and R. L. Baldwin, VI. 2000. Effects of diet forage-to-concentrate ratio and metabolizable energy intake on visceral organ growth and in vitro oxidative capacity of gut tissues in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 78:760-770.
 
Rumsey, T. S., K. R. McLeod, T. H. Elsasser, S. Khal, and R. L. Baldwin. 2000. Performance and carcass merit of growing beef steers with chlortetracycline-modified sensitivity to pituitary releasing hormones and fed two dietary protein levels. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2765-2770.
 
Silvio, J. S., D. L. Harmon, K. L. Gross, and K. R. McLeod. 2000. Nutrient digestibility in dogs fed differing fiber types. Nutrition 16:289-295.
 
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1999. Nutritional evaluation of poultry byproduct meal as a protein source for ruminants: Small intestinal amino acid flow and disappearance in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1000-1007.
 
Rumsey, T. S., K. R. McLeod, T. H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, and R. L. Baldwin. 1999. Effects of oral chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers before and after challenge with a combination of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2079-2087.
 
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1998. Nutritional evaluation of poultry byproduct meal as a protein source for ruminants: Effects on performance and nutrient flow and disappearance in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2474-2484.
 
McLeod, K. R., M. L. Bauer, D. L. Harmon, C. K. Reynolds, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1997. Effects of exogenous somatostatin and cysteamine on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of sheep during intraduodenal infusion of starch hydrolysate and casein. J. Anim. Sci. 75:3026-3037.
 
Wilkerson, V. A., B. P. Glenn, and K. R. McLeod. 1997. Energy and N balance in lactating cows fed diets containing dry or high moisture corn in either rolled or ground form. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2487-2496.
 
Bauer, M. L., D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. B. Huntington. 1995. Adaptation to small intestinal starch assimilation and glucose transport in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1828-1838.
 
Cremin, J.D., K. R. McLeod, D.L. Harmon, A.L. Goetsch, L.D. Bourquin, and G.C. Fahey. 1995. Portal and hepatic fluxes in sheep and concentrations in cattle ruminal fluid of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic, benzoic, 3-phenylpropionic, and trans-cinnamic acids. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1766-1775.
 
McLeod, K. R., D. L. Harmon, K. K. Schillo, S. M. Hileman, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1995. Effects of cysteamine on pulsatile growth hormone release and plasma insulin concentrations in sheep. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 112B:523-533.
 
McLeod, K. R., D. L. Harmon, K. K. Schillo, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1995. Cysteamine-induced depletion of somatostatin in sheep: Time course of depletion and changes in plasma metabolites, insulin, and growth hormone. J. Anim. Sci. 73:77-87.
 

Invited Symposia Proceedings:

Kim, D.H., K.R. McLeod, J.L. Klotz, A.F. Koontz, A.P. Foote, and D.L. Harmon. 2013. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 134 J.W. Oltjen, Ermias Kebreab, H. Lapierre (Eds.). pp. 235-236.
 
Koontz, A.F., D.H. Kim, A.P. Foote, L.P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2013. Effect of fescue toxicosis on nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 134 J.W. Oltjen, Ermias Kebreab, H. Lapierre (Eds.). pp. 67-68.
 
Baldwin, R.L., VI, J. Sumner-Thomson, E.E. Conner, R.W. Li, K.R. McLeod, and B.J. Bequette. 2010. Hepatic transcriptome of beef steers is differentially modulated by composition of energy substrate supply in growing beef steers. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 127 G. M. Crovetto (Ed.). pp. 313-314.
 
Taylor-Edwards,C.C., D.G. Burrin, N.B. Kristensen, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alters amino acid fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of ruminant calves. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 127 G. M. Crovetto (Ed.). pp. 199-200.
 
McLeod, K. R., 2008. Influence of site of carbohydrate digestion on absorption and whole-body energetics. Oklahoma State University Cattle Grain Processing Symposium, Tulsa, OK. (MP77:129-136).
 
McLeod, K. R., S. W. El- Kadi, D. L. Harmon, and E. S. Vanzant. 2007. Amino acid and energy metabolism by the portal-drained-viscera of beef steers: quantitative relationships with metabolizable energy intake. In: M. Ortigues, N. Miraux, and W. Brand-Williams (Eds.) Energy and Protein and Nutrition.EAAP Pub.No. 124, pp.343-344. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
 
Baldwin, R. L. VI, S. W. El-Kadi, K. R. McLeod, E. E. Conner, and B. J. Bequette. 2007. Intestinal and ruminal epithelial and hepatic metabolism regulatory gene expression as affected by forage to concentrate ratio in bulls. In: M. Ortigues, N. Miraux, and W. Brand-Williams (Eds.) Energy and Protein and Nutrition.EAAP Pub.No. 124, pp.293-294. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
 
McLeod, K. R., R. L. Baldwin, D. L. Harmon, C. J. Richards, and W. V. Rumpler. 2001. Influence of ruminal and postruminal starch infusion on energy balance in growing steers. In: A. Chwalibog and K. Jakobsen (Eds.) Energy Metabolism in Animals. pp.385-388. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI and K. R. McLeod. 2001. Glucose oxidation by isolated duodenal enterocytes in vitro. In: Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. In: A. Chwalibog and K. Jakobsen (Eds.) Energy Metabolism in Animals. pp.217-220. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, and K. R. McLeod. 1998. Influence of energy density and metabolizable energy intake on substrate metabolism by ruminal epithelial cells isolated from sheep. In: K. McCracken, E. F. Unsworth, and A. R. G. Wylie (Eds.) Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. pp. 55-58. CAB International, Wallingford, U. K.
 
McLeod, K. R. and R. L. Baldwin. 1998. Influence of energy density and metabolizable energy intake on visceral organ growth in sheep. In: K. McCracken, E. F. Unsworth, and A. R. G. Wylie (Eds.) Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. pp. 31-34. CAB International, Wallingford, U. K.
 
Bauer, M. L., D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. B. Huntington. 1994. Ruminant visceral glucose flux and small intestinal glucose transport in response to adaptation of intestinal starch assimilation. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 3:98.
 
McLeod, K. R., K. J. Karr, K. A. Dawson, D. K. Aaron and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Influence of yeast culture and monensin on ruminal metabolic end products and feedlot performance. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry: Proceedings of Alltech's Seventh Annual Symposium. pp. 321-323.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Influence of yeast culture and/or monensin on nitrogen flow and rumen fermentation in sheep. In: Biotechnology in the Feed Industry: Proceedings of Alltech's Seventh Annual Symposium. pp. 337-339.
 
Richardson, C. R., K. R. McLeod and D. G. Lust. 1987. Utilization of fermented cattle packing plant paunch material by ruminants. Food Processing Waste Conference.
 

Book Chapter:

Baldwin, R.L. and K. R. Mcleod. 2014. Role and function of short chain fatty acids in rumen epithelial metabolism, development and importance of the rumen epithelium in understanding control of transcriptome. In: Congjun Li (Ed.) Butyrate: Food SOurces, Functions and Health Benefits. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 119-218.

Abstracts

Baldwin, R. L., C. Li, D. M. Bickhart, C. M. Evock-Clover, P. Grossi, R. K. Choudhary, T. H. Elsasser, G. Bertoni, E. Trevisi, G. E. Aiken, K. R. McLeod, and A. Capuco. 2016. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 94 (E-Suppl. 5): 401.
 
Altman, A. L., E. S. Vanzant, J. A. Carrol, N. C. Burdick-Sanchez, and K. R. McLeod. 2016. Heat production, respiratory quotient, and methane loss subsequent to LPS challenge in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 94 (E-Suppl. 1): 20.
 
Capa de Avila, C., G. V. Kozloski, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2016. Effect of inclusion of Acacia mearnsii tannin extract on nitrogen and energy balance in growing beef cattle fed a low-protein corn silage diet. J. Anim. Sci. 94 (E-Suppl. 5): 747.
 
Bruno, K. A., E. S. Vanzant, A. W. Altman, M. Kudupoje, and K. R. McLeod. 2015. A novel objective chute score interacts with monensin to affect growth of receiving cattle. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. s3):624.
 
Altman, A.W., N. C. Burdick-Sanchez, J. A. Carroll, T. B. Schmidt, K. R. McLeod, G. E. Aiken, and E. S. Vanzant. 2015. Cosinor analysis of CRT in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. s3):630.
 
Kudupoje, M. B., E. S. Vanzant, A. Yiannikouris, K. A. Dawson, and K. R. McLeod. 2015. Characterization of novel polymers for alkaloid adsorption. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. s3):675.
 
Bruno, K. A., E. S. Vanzant, A. W. Altman, M. Kudupoje and K. R. McLeod. 2015. Relationship between quantitative measures of temperament and observed behaviors in receiving cattle. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. s3):831.
 
Wingard, S., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2014. Effect of direct-fed microbials and monensin on in vitro fermentation of a high-forage substrate. J. Anim. Sci. 92, (E-Suppl. 2): 867.
 
Kudupoje, M. B., E. S. Vanzant, A. Yiannikouris, K. A. Dawson, and K. R. McLeod. 2014. Polymers molecularly imprinted with ergotamine: Recognition properties to template and related alkaloids. J. Anim. Sci. 92, (E-Suppl. 2): 1099.
 
Egert, A.M., K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz and D. L. Harmon. 2014. Analysis of rumen motility patterns using a wireless telemetry system to characterize bovine reticuloruminal contractions. J. Anim. Sci. 92, (E-Suppl. 2):804.
 
Kenney, N. M., S. M. Wingard, E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2013. Effect of direct-fed microbials on ruminal fermentation and lactate utilization in steers consuming a high concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 8.
 
Choudhary. R. K., R. L. Baldwin VI, C. M. Evock-Clover, P. Grossi, T. H. Elsasser, G. Bertoni, E. Trevisi, K. R. McLeod, and A. V. Capuco. 2013. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 571.
 
Altman, A. W., N. C. Burdick-Sanchez, J. A. Carroll, T. B. Schmidt, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2013. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 480.
 
Altman, A. W., N. C. Burdick-Sanchez, J. A. Carroll, T. B. Schmidt, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2013. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the metabolic response to a provocative immune challenge in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 651.
 
Roberts, K. E., K. M. Anderson, N. M. Kenney, K. R. McLeod, and E. S. Vanzant. 2013. In vitro fermentation of high forage substrate with addition of direct fed microbials and/or monensin. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 283.
 
Koontz, A. F., D. H. Kim, A. P. Foote, J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. Effect of fescue toxicosis on ruminal kinetics, nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 92.
 
Holder, V. B., J. S. Jennings, K. R. McLeod, J. M. Tricarico, and D. L. Harmon. 2013. Effects of basal diet and degradable intake protein levelon the growth response to slow release urea in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91: (E-Suppl. 2)/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96: (E-Suppl. 1) 25.
 
Foote, A. P., N. B. Kristensen, J. L. Klotz, K. R. Brown, J. R. Strickland, D. H. Kim, A. F. Koontz, K. R. McLeod, L. P. Bush ,and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Ergovaline disappearance from a ruminally incubated buffer. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 94.
 
Kim, D. H., K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz, A. F. Koontz, A. P. Foote, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 99.
 
Kenney, N. M., C. A. Schaeffer, E. S. Vanzant, J. W. Lehmkuhler, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Effect of direct-fed microbials on utilization of ruminally degradable protein in receiving steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 100.
 
Schaeffer, C. A., E. S. Vanzant, J. W. Lehmkuler, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Effect of distillers grain supplementation on fescue intake and utilization. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 338.
 
Koontz, A. F., A. P. Foote, D. H. Kim, L. P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 622.
 
Baldwin, R. L., A. V. Capuco, C. M. Evock-Clover, P. Grossi, R. K. Choudhary, T. H. Elsasser, G. Bertoni, E. Trevisi, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 95 (E Suppl. 2):416.
 
Foote, A. P., N. B. Kristensen, J. L. Klotz, D. H. Kim, A. F. Koontz, K. R. McLeod, L. P. Bush, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow. J. Anim. Sci. 90: (E suppl. 3) 431.
 
Kahl, S., T. H. Elsasser, R. L. Baldwin VI, A. V. Capuco, P. Grossi, and K. R. McLeod. 2012. Effects of feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed to Holstein cows during the dry period on plasma nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO), and haptoglobin (Hp) status in newborn calves. J. Dairy Sci. 95 (E Suppl. 2):508.
 
De Godoy, M. R. C., C. E. Conway, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2012. Influence of feeding a fish oil containing diet to adult lean dogs: Effects on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycemia, and body weight. J. Anim. Sci. 89: (E suppl. 1) 286.
 
Foote, A. P., D. L. Harmon, K. R. Brown, J. R. Strickland, K. R. McLeod, L. P. Bush, and J. L. Klotz. 2011. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature. J. Anim. Sci. 89: (E suppl. 1) 49.
 
De Godoy, M. R. C., K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2011. Influence of feeding a fish oil containing diet to mature overweight dogs: Effects on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycemia, and body weight. J. Anim. Sci. 89: (E suppl. 1) 286.
 
Martin, S. K., C. E. Conway, M. R. C. de Godoy, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, S. Zicker, R. M. Yamka, and K. R. McLeod. 2010. Dietary magnesium alters urinary histamine excretion in domestic felines. J. Anim. Sci. 88: (E Suppl. 2) 325.
 
Martin, S. K., C. E. Conway, M. R. C. de Godoy, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, S. Zicker, R. M. Yamka, and K. R. McLeod. 2010. Dietary effects of dietary cation anion balance on histamine metabolism and urine acidity in domestic felines. J. Anim. Sci. 88: (E Suppl. 2) 325.
 
Conway, C. E., M. R. C. de Godoy, S. K. Martin, K. R. McLeod, N. Z. Frantz, R. M. Yamka, and D. L. Harmon. 2010. The effects of graded arginine levels on nitrogen metabolism in the lean adult dog. J. Anim. Sci. 88: (E Suppl. 2) 326.
 
Koontz, A.F., L. P. Bush, J. L. Klotz, K. R. McLeod, F. N. Schrick, and D. L. Harmon. 2010. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract. J. Anim. Sci. 88: (E Suppl. 2) 704.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C., D. G. Burrin, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2010. SS-ASAS Emerging Scholar Award: Distribution and role of glucagon-like peptide-2 in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 88: (E Suppl. 2) 26.
 
Holder, V. B., S. El-Kadi, J. M. Tricarico, E. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2009. The effects of crude protein concentration and urea source on nitrogen metabolism in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87: (E Suppl. 2) 300.
 
Koontz, A. F., S. W. El-Kadi, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2009. Effect of ractopamine on whole body and splanchnic energy balance in Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87: (E Suppl. 2) 293.
 
Lane, E. P., E. S. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, and M. N. Steinman. 2009. The effect of dietary protein on immune response in receiving steers. J. Anim. Sci. 87: (E Suppl. 2) 299.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C. C., D. G. Burin, J. J. Holt, K. R. McLeod, and D. L, Harmon. 2009.Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases splanchnic blood flow acutely in calves but loses effec tiveness with chronic exposure. J. Anim. Sci. 87: (E Suppl. 2) 234.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C. C., D. G. Burin, K. R. McLeod, and D. L, Harmon. 2009. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases small intestinal mass of calves. J. Anim. Sci. 87: (E Suppl. 2) 234.
 
Hibbard, G., K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, R. Yamka, and K. G. Friesen. 2008. Dietary lysine: Calorie ratios and their influence on nitrogen metabolism and digestibility in overweight mature dogs.
 
Bohaty, R. E., M. R. C. de Godoy, K. R. McLeod, D L. Harmon, R. M. Yamka, N. Z. Frantz, and K.G. Friesen. 2008. Effect of added total sulfur amino acids and threonine on nitrogen balance in dogs. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 213.
 
Korthaus, F. F., E.S. Vanzant, G. Rentfrow, K. K. Kreikemeier, D. L. Harmon, and K.R. McLeod. Effects of distiller’s grain and probiotic on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 585.
 
Liao, S. F., E. S. Vanzant, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, and J. C. Matthews. 2008. Basal expression of four SLC1 (Na+-dependent glutamate transporter) mRNA by small intestinal epithelia of beef cattle differs and is altered by ruminal and abomasal infusion of starch hydrolysate. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 561.
 
Martin, S. K., M. R. C. de Godoy, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, R. M. Yamka, K. G. Friesen, and K. R. McLeod. 2008. Diet transition time and stabilization of apparent digestibility in the feline. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 167.
 
Stewart, R. L., Jr., J. M. Tricarico, D. L. Harmon, W. Chalupa, K. R. McLeod, G. A. Harrison, L. M. Clark, M. D. Meyer, R. Garcia-Gonzalez, and K. A. Dawson. 2008. Influence of Optigen® on nitrogen behavior in lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 491.
 
Liao, S. F., D. L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, and J. C. Matthews. 2008 Basal content of sugar transporter mRNA in small intestinal epithelia of beef steers is differentially increased by abomasal vs ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 427.
 
Kitts, S. E., S. W. El-Kadi, C. C. Taylor-Edwards, F. F. Korthaus, J. B. Cannon, A. F. Koontz, D. L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2008. The effects of dexamethasone and Revalor-S® on growth, carcass quality and visceral organ and fat mass of finishing beef steers fed cracked corn. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 279.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C. C., D. B. Edwards, M. J. Doig, E. S. Vanzant, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, J. C. Matthews, and D. L. Harmon. 2008. Proglucagon and GLP-2 receptor mRNA distribution in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. J. Anim. Sci. 86: (E Suppl. 2) 428.
 
Taylor-Edwards,C., K. R. McLeod, J. C. Matthews, J. J. Holst and D. L. Harmon. 2007. Evidence for a role for glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in ruminant animals. FASEB J. 21:839.18.
 
Cannon, J. B., A. Gallegos , D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2007. Probiotics in growing pre-ruminant calves. J. Anim Sci. 85 (Suppl. 1):111.
 
Kitts, S. E., C. C. Taylor, J. B. Cannon, A. Beckemeyer, K. E. Earing, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant and K. R. McLeod. 2007. Effects of dexamethasone injections and Revalor-S® on growth, carcass characteristics and visceral and fat mass of finishing beef steers. J. Anim Sci.85 (Suppl. 1):547.
 
Garcia-Gonzales, R., J. M. Tricarico, G. A. Harrison, M. D. Meyer, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, and K. A. Dawson. 2007. Optigen® is a sustained release source of non-protein nitrogen in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):98.
 
El-Kadi, S. W., R. L. Baldwin, K. R. McLeod, N. E. Sunny, S. L. Owens, and B. J. Bequette. 2007. Profiling energy substrate metabolism in isolated rumen epithelial and duodenal mucosal cells from beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):342.
 
Liao, S. F., M. J. Alman, E. S. Vanzant, E. D. Miles, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, J. A. Boling, and J. C. Matthews. 2007. Ruminal, but not abomasal, infusion of starch differentially increases expression of concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) mRNA by small intestinal (SI) epithelia of forage-fed steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):343.
 
Kitts, S. E., C. C. Taylor-Edwards, D. B. Edwards, J. B Cannon, A. F. Beckemeyer, K. E. Earing, D. L. Harmon, E. S. Vanzant, and K. R. McLeod. 2007. Effects of dexamethasone administration and Revalor-S® on growth, carcass characteristics, and visceral organ and fat mass of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):547.
 
Baldwin, R. L., K. R. McLeod, R. G. Baumann, E. E. Connor. 2006. Influence of carbohydrate infusion on lipogenic enzyme and regulatory protein gene expression in growing beef steers. FASEB J. 20:Abst. LB380.
 
Elam, N. A., C. Taylor, S. E. Kitts, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, and E. S. Vanzant. 2005. Quantitative assessment of visceral energy metabolism in beef steers consuming graded levels of forage. J. Anim. Sci. 88(Suppl. 1):52.
 
Taylor, C. C., N. A. Elam, S. E. Kitts, K. R. McLeod, D. E. Axe, and D. L. Harmon. 2005. Influence of slow-release urea on N balance and nutrient absorption of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 88(Suppl. 1):321.
 
Kitts, S. E., J. C. Matthews, G. L. Sipes, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, K. Kahl, R. L. Baldwin, and K. R. McLeod. 2004. Effects of chlortetracycline (CTC) and steroidal implant on growth and plasma growth hormone (GH) and thyroid hormone release after challenge with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):41.
 
Sipe, G. L., S. E. Kitts, K. R. McLeod, and J. C. Matthews. 2004. Chlortetracycline, but not Synovex-S, differentially affects tissue expression of high-affinity glutamate transporters in fattening steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):42.
 
Speight, S. M., K. C. Hanson, J. Tricarico, K. R. McLeod, and D. L. Harmon. 2004. Effect of exogenous amylase and corn type on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):45.
 
Taylor, C. C., S. E. Kitts, N. B. Kristensen, K. R. McLeod, D. E. Axe, and D. L. Harmon. 2004. Influence of slow-release urea on nitrogen flux in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):45.
 
Rodriguez, S. M., K. C. Guimaraes, J. C. Matthews, K. R. McLeod, R. L. Baldwin, VI, and D. L. Harmon. 2003. Influence of abomasal carbohydrates on small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter activity and abundance in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):266.
 
Yamka, R. M., K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon, H. C. Freetly, and W. D. Schoenherr. 2003. Accounting for the proportion of alpha-amino nitrogen in crude protein improves metabolizable energy prediction in dry extruded dog foods. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):260.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, J. Klotz, R. N. Heitmann, and K. R. McLeod. 2003. Effects of intestinal development on calf growth. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):136.
 
Gissendanner, S. J., N. M. P. Etienne, K. R. McLeod, and J. C. Matthews. 2003. The patterns of EAAC1 and GLT-1 glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase expression by skeletal muscle and adipose tissues change as cattle grow and fatten. 19th Annual MANRRS.
 
Baldwin, R. L., K. R. McLeod, and A. V. Capuco. 2002. Effect of stage of lactation on visceral tissue mass and intestinal proliferation. J. Dairy Sci. 85(Suppl.1):1283.
 
Van Kessel, J. S., P. C. Nedoluha, A. Williams-Campbell, R. L. Baldwin, and K. R. McLeod. 2002. Effects of ruminal and post-ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate or glucose on the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract in growing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):944.
 
Moallem, U., K. R. McLeod, G. E. Dahl, E. K. Duffey-Tower, A. V. Capuco, and R. A. Erdman. 2001. Effects of added rumen undegraded protein and bovine somatotropin administration on body composition in prepubertal dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 84:(Suppl. 1):1791.
 
Baldwin, R. L., K. R. McLeod, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, and S. Kahl. 1998. Influence of chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma somatomedin-C concentration, performance, visceral organ mass, and carcass merit of growing beef steers. FASEB J. 12(5):A851.
 
McLeod, K. R., T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, and R. L. Baldwin. 1998. Chlortetracycline affects plasma growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers after challenge with thyrotropin releasing hormone plus growth hormone releasing hormone. FASEB J. 12(5):A852.
 
Dawson, T. E., K. R. McLeod, and R. L. Baldwin. 1997. In vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of continuous rumen fermentors fed a sub-therapeutic level of chlortetracycline and two dietary protein levels. Conference on Rumen Function, Chicago, Ill., 24:18.
 
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1997. Small intestinal amino acid flow and disappearance in steers supplemented with increasing levels of poultry byproduct meal. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. 1):93.
 
Richards, C. J., A. F. Branco, D. W. Bohnert, D. L. Harmon, G. B. Huntington, B. T. Larson, and K. R. McLeod. 1997. Intestinal starch disappearance in steers abomasally infused with varying levels of protein. J. Anim. Sci. (Suppl. 1):97.
 
Waldner, D. N., D. G. Ely, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and D. K. Aaron. 1996. Pancreatic enzyme and cholecystokinin response to abomasally infused casein in the sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):20.
 
Waldner, D. N., D. G. Ely, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and D. K. Aaron. 1996. Ovine pancreatic response to abomasally infused casein. J. Anim. Sci. 74: (Suppl. 1):265.
 
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1996. Poultry byproduct meal as a source of supplemental nitrogen for ruminants: I. Effects on growth, gain efficiency, and protein efficiency. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):275.
 
Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1996. Poultry byproduct meal as a source of supplemental nitrogen for ruminants: II. Flow and disappearance of nutrients in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):275.
 
Silvio, J. S., D. L. Harmon, K. L. Gross, and K. R. McLeod. 1996. Nutrient digestibility in dogs fed differing fiber types. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):187.
 
McLeod, K. R., M. L. Bauer, D. L. Harmon, and G. E. Mitchell Jr. 1994. Manipulation of the somatostatin plexus: Influence on net visceral metabolism in sheep. FASEB J. 8:A915.
 
Bauer, M. L., D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. B. Huntington. 1994. Small intestinal glucose flux in sheep: Effects of phlorizin and adaptation to a starch hydrolysate. FASEB J. 8:1020.
 
McLeod, K. R., D. L. Harmon, K. K. Schillo and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1993. Cysteamine induced depletion of somatostatin in abomasal tissue of sheep. FASEB J. 7:A524.
 
McLeod, K. R., J. T. Johns, K. J. Karr and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Comparison of corn silage and ground ear corn as energy sources for growing cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl.1):548.
 
McLeod, K. R., K. J. Karr, K. A. Dawson, D. K. Aaron and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Influence of yeast culture and monensin on ruminal metabolic end products and feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1):158.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Zinc-treated soybean meal as a source of supplemental protein for growing calves. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1):529.
 
Jazi, S., K. R. McLeod, K. J. Karr, N. Gay, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Bovine serum glutathione peroxidase and immune responses to injected zinc, selenium or vitamin E. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1):147.
 
Westendorf, M. L., K. R. McLeod, K. J. Karr, G. E. Mitchell, Jr., N. Gay and R. E. Tucker. 1991. Bovine plasma vitamin A response to selected nutrients, monensin, and endophytic fescue. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1):151.
 
Jazi, S., H. E. Mckean, K. R. McLeod, K. R. Karr, N. Gay, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Effect of zinc, selenium, and vitamin E on blood characteristics and immune responses in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1): 546.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod, K. A. Dawson, N. Gay, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr., 1990. Rumen fermentation and feedlot performance of cattle fed diets supplemented with sodium and(or) monensin. J. Anim. Sci. 68 (Suppl. 1): 547.
 
McLeod, K. R., K. J. Karr, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1990. Rumen fermentation and nitrogen flow in lambs receiving yeast culture and(or) monensin. J. Anim. Sci. 73 (Suppl. 1):226.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1987. The effects of moisture or moisture plus a sodium diocytlsulfosuccinate containing conditioner on the utilization of grain sorghum. J. Anim. Sci. 65 (Suppl. 1):662.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1986. Laboratory evaluations of processed grain sorghum and corn. J. Anim. Sci. 63 (Suppl. 1):675.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1986. Effects of added moisture or added moisture plus heat on the utilization of grain sorghum. J. Anim. Sci (Suppl. 1): 656.

Experiment Station Research

Kenney, N.M., E.S. Vanzant, J.W. Lehmkuhler, D.L. Harmon, and K.R. McLeod. 2012. Effect of degradable intake protein supply on utilization of direct-fed microbials in receiving steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR105:29-30.
 
Kim, D.H., K.R. McLeod, J.L. Klotz, A.F. Koontz, A.P. Foote, and D.L. Harmon. 2012. Evaluation of a rapid determination of heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washing rumen technique. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR105:26-28.
 
Koontz, A.F., A.P. Foote, D.H. Kim, L.P. Bush, J.L. Klotz, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2012. Alteration of basal metabolic rate in Holstein steers during fescue toxicosis. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR105:7-9.
 
Foote, A.P., D.L. Harmon, K.R. Brown, J.R. Strickland, K.R. McLeod, L.P. Bush, and J.L. Klotz. 2012. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR105:14-15.
 
Foote, A.P., N.B. Kristensen, J.L. Klotz, D.H. Kim, A.F. Koontz, K.R. McLeod, L.P. Bush, and D.L. Harmon. 2012. Ergot alkaloids reduce rumen epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR105:16-19.
 
McLeod, K.R., N.A. Elam, S.E. Kitts, C.C. Taylor, E.S. Vanzant, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Splanchnic energy metabolism in beefs steers consuming graded amounts of high quality forage. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:41-44.
 
McLeod, K.R., R.L. Baldwin VI, and E.E. Connor. 2010. Influence of energy supply on expression of genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins in growing beef steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:66-68.
 
Kitts, S.E., E.S. Vanzant, D.L. Harmon, K.K. Kreikemeier, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Effects of direct-fed microbial and vitamin/mineral supplementation on health and growth performance of stressed calves. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:25-28.
 
Kitts, S.E., D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Effects of chlortetracycline and Revalor-S™ on growth performance and carcass quality traits of finishing beef steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:34-37.
 
Kitts, S.E., J.C. Matthews, K.K. Schillo, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Effects of chlortetracycline and Synovex-S™ on plasma growth hormone (GH) and thyroid hormone concentrations following administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in beef steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:38-41.
 
Koontz, A.F., S.W. El-Kadi, D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Effect of Ractopamine on Whole-Body and Splanchnic Energy Metabolism in Holstein Steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:44-47.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, N.B. Kristensen, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alters amino acid fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of ruminant calves. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:47-48.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, J.J. Holst, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:48-51.
 
Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, J.C. Matthews, K.R. Mcleod, J.J. Holst, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Expression of mRNA for proglucagon and glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) receptor in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and the influence of energy intake. 2010. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:51-54.
 
Taylor Edwards, C.C., N.A. Elam, S.E. Kitts, K.R. McLeod, D.E. Axe, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Influence of slow-release urea on N balance and gastrointestinal nutrient absorption in steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:54-56.
 
Ballou, A.L., K.R. McLeod, N.B. Kristensen, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Effects of diet and phlorizin on glucose absorption from the small intestine of steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:57-58.
 
Xu, M., M. Rinker, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Yucca schidigera extract decreases in vitro methane production in a variety of forages and diets. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:62 64.
 
Holder, V.B., S. El-Kadi, J.M. Tricarico, E.S. Vanzant, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. The effects of crude protein concentration and non-protein nitrogen source on nitrogen metabolism in steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:68-71.
 
Koontz, A.F., L.P. Bush, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Development of a precise, repeatable model for fescue toxicosis. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:20-22.
 
Vanzant, E.S., E. Lane, K.R. McLeod, M. Steinman, and J.W. Lehmkuhler. 2010. The effect of dietary protein on growth and immunological response in growing steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:23-24.
 
Hibbard, G., D.L. Harmon, K.R. McLeod, and E.S. Vanzant. 2010. Effects of supplemental slow-release urea vs. normal urea on performance of growing beef steers fed corn silage. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:29-31.
 
Vanzant, E.S., F. Korthaus, K.R. McLeod, G. Rentfrow, J.W. Lehmkuhler, and K.K. Kreikemeier. 2010. Distiller’s Grains and a Direct-Fed Microbial for Finishing Beef Steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report. SR104:32-34.
 
Kitts, S. E., J. C. Matthews, G. L. Sipes, T. S. Rumsey, T. H. Elsasser, R. L. Baldwin, Jr., and K. R. McLeod. 2003. Effects of oral chlortetracycline and steroid implant on growth performance and carcass merit of finishing beef steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report SR-2003-2. pp.5.
 
Kitts, S. E., K. C. Hanson, N. A. Elam, M. C. Newman, D. L. Harmon, and K. R. McLeod. 2003. Effects of corn type and forage level on growth performance and E. coli. shedding in finishing beef steers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report SR-2003-2. pp. 9.
 
Hanson, K.C., K.R. McLeod and D.L. Harmon. 2003. Effect of supplemental energy source on performance of growing beef heifers fed drought-damaged corn silage. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report SR-2003-2. pp. 8.
 
Hanson, K.C., K.R. McLeod, J. Tricarico and D.L. Harmon. 2003. Effect of exogenous amylase and corn type on performance and characteristics of finishing beef heifers. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report SR-2003-2. pp. 22.
 
Harmon, D.L., K.C. Hanson, S.E. Kitts, N.B. Kristensen, K.R. McLeod and D.E. Axe. 2003. Influence of slow-release urea on digestion and metabolism of ruminants. Beef Research Report. KY Agr. Report SR-2003-2. pp. 29.
 
McLeod, K. R., M. L. Bauer, D. L. Harmon, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1994. Somatostatin: Regulation of nutrient uptake in ruminants. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 366. pp 54-57.
 
McLeod, K. R., D. L. Harmon, M. L. Bauer, K. K. Schillo, and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1994. Cysteamine-induced depletion of somatostatin in sheep: A model for studying the role of somatostatin in ruminants. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 366. pp 58-61.
 
Bauer, M. L., D. L. Harmon, K. R. McLeod, and G. B. Huntington. 1994. Small intestinal glucose flux: Effects of adaptation to digesting starch and phlorizin. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. pp 48-53.
 
Harmon, D. L., R. Burris, K. R. McLeod, and M. L. Bauer. 1994. Utilization of whole-roasted soybeans by growing calves fed corn silage. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. pp 30-34.
 
Harmon, D. L., K. A. Dawson, M. L. Bauer, and K. R. McLeod. 1994. Efficacy of yeasacc in low and adequate protein diets fed to growing beef steers. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. pp 41-44.
 
McLeod, K. R., J. T. Johns, G. E. Mitchell, Jr. and R. E. Tucker. 1991. Restrictive feeding of a high-energy ration as an alternative to a conventional corn silage-based growing ration for cattle. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 337. pp 54-56.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Zinc-protected soybean meal as a source of protein for growing calves. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 337. pp 21-24.
 
Jazi, S. H., H. E. McKean, K. R. McLeod, K. J. Karr, N. Gay, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1991. Influence of zinc, vitamin E and selenium on immune response mechanisms. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 337. pp 25-26.
 
McLeod, K. R., K. J. Karr, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1990. Actions of sodium and monensin on cattle performance, rumen characteristics and serum cation concentrations. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 326.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod, K. A. Dawson, R. E. Tucker and G. E. Mitchell, Jr. 1990. Influence of yeast culture and/or monensin on nitrogen flow and rumen fermentation in sheep. Kentucky Beef Cattle Rep. 326. pp 36-38.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1987. Effects of moisture or moisture plus a conditioning agent on the utilization of processed grain sorghum. Texas Tech Univ. Res. Rep. T-5-233. pp 77-79.
 
Karr, K. J., K. R. McLeod and C. R. Richardson. 1987. Enzymatic starch determination utilizing amperometric measurements of glucose. Texas Tech Univ. Res. Rep. T-5-233. pp 80-81.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1986. Effects of added moisture or added moisture plus heat on utilization of grain sorghum. Texas Tech Univ. Res. Rep. T-5-213. pp 1-3.
 
McLeod, K. R. and C. R. Richardson. 1986. Laboratory evaluations of processed grain sorghum and corn. Texas Tech Univ. Res. Rep. T-5-213. pp 7-8.

Invited Presentations/Seminars

McLeod, K.R. 2013. Site of starch digestion: impact on energetic efficiency and glucose metabolism in beef and dairy cattle. 50thAnnual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science, Campinas, SP, Brazil. (Declined due to previous obligation).
 
McLeod, K.R. 2012. Animal Bioenergetics. Maringa, Brazil.
 
Baldwin, R. L., VI, J. Sumner-Thomson, E.E. Conner, R. W. Li, K. R. McLeod, and B. J. Bequette. 2010. Hepatic transcriptome of beef steers is differentially modulated by composition of energy substrate supply in growing beef steers. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 127 G. M. Crovetto (Ed.). pp. 313-314.
 
Taylor-Edwards,C.C., D.G. Burrin, N.B. Kristensen, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alters amino acid fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of ruminant calves. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 127 G. M. Crovetto (Ed.). pp. 199-200.
 
McLeod, K. R., R. L. Baldwin, S. W. El-Kadi, and D. L. Harmon. 2008 Site of starch digestion: Impact on energetic efficiency and glucose metabolism in beef and dairy cattle.Oklahoma State University Press. MP77:129-136.
 
McLeod, K. R., S. W. El- Kadi, D. L. Harmon, and E. S. Vanzant. 2007. Amino acid and energy metabolism by the portal-drained-viscera of beef steers: quantitative relationships with metabolizable energy intake. In: M. Ortigues, N. Miraux, and W. Brand-Williams (Eds.) Energy and Protein and Nutrition.EAAP Pub.No. 124, pp.343-344. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
 
Baldwin, R. L. VI, S. W. El-Kadi, K. R. McLeod, E. E. Conner, and B. J. Bequette. 2007. Intestinal and ruminal epithelial and hepatic metabolism regulatory gene expression as affected by forage to concentrate ratio in bulls. In: M. Ortigues, N. Miraux, and W. Brand-Williams (Eds.) Energy and Protein and Nutrition.EAAP Pub.No. 124, pp.293-294. Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
 
Invited Symposium Paper: “Rumen Development, Intestinal Growth, and Hepatic Metabolism in the Pre- and Post- Weaning Ruminant”, Joint National Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science and American Dairy Science Association, Phoenix, AZ., 2003.
 
Invited Scientific Paper and Presentation: “Influence of Ruminal and Postruminal Starch Infusion on Energy Balance in Growing Steers”, 15th International Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Snekkersten, Denmark, 2000.
 
Invited Scientific Paper and Presentation: “Glucose Metabolism by Isolated Steer Duodenal Enterocytes In vitro”, 15th International Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Snekkersten, Denmark, 2000.
 
Invited Symposium Paper: “Glucose Uptake and Regulation by Intestinal Tissues: Implications and Whole Body Energetics”, Joint National Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science and American Dairy Science Association, Baltimore, MD., 2000.
 
Invited Lecturer: “Methodologies of Indirect Calorimetry: Determination of Energy Balance and Energy Partitioning in Ruminants”, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2000.
 
Invited Lecturer: “Nutritional and Physiological Factors Affecting Visceral Metabolism and Whole Body Energy Use”, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1998.
 
Invited Scientific Paper and Presentation: “Influence of Energy Density and Metabolizable Energy Intake on Visceral Organ Growth in Sheep”, 14th International Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Newcastle, Northern Ireland, 1997.
 
Invited Scientific Paper and Presentation: “Influence of Energy Density and Metabolizable Energy Intake on Substrate Metabolism by Ruminal Epithelial Cells Isolated From Sheep”, 14th International Symposium on Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, Newcastle, Northern Ireland, 1997.
 
Invited Chairperson: “Section on Ruminant Digestive Physiology”, National Meetings of the American Society of Animal Science, Nashville, TN., 1997.
 
Invited Symposium Speaker: “Manipulation of the Somatostatin Plexus: Influence on Net Visceral Metabolism in Sheep”, Mini symposium on Nutrient Partitioning, Experimental Biology, Anaheim, CA., 1994.

Teaching and Advising

Instruction

Energy Metabolism (ASC 681). Prerequisite: ASC 378 and BCH 502 or equivalent. Course objective is to provide the student with the necessary information and skills to gain an understanding of factors which influence energy expenditure and transformations in animals, including humans. Specifically, 1) concepts of thermodynamics as applied to biological systems, 2) partitioning of intake energy and energy balance, 3) intermediary metabolism and energy exchanges during physiological states such as maintenance of body mass, growth, lactation, etc., 4) methodologies and techniques used to study energy balance, and 5) description and limitations of current feeding systems used to describe energy requirements.

Mammalian Endocrinology (ASC/PGY 601). Prerequisite: BCH 401G and BIO 350 or equivalent. Course deals with the fundamental principles of endocrinology; specifically, principles of hormone synthesis, secretion, transport, action and metabolism. The overall goal of the course is to provide an advance understanding of how hormones regulate various physiological processes in mammals.

Introductory Graduate Seminar (ASC 771). Course is designed to provide incoming graduate students with necessary skills to become knowledgeable readers of the scientific literature and to create literature databases for scientific writing. An additional focal point of the curriculum includes federal and institutional regulations of research involving the use of vertebrate animals.

Refereed Journal Articles

Reeder, T., G. Hibbard, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2011. Dietary lysine: calorie ratios and their influence on nitrogen metabolism and digestibility in moderately obese mature dogs. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Science. 6: 45-54.

Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, K.R. McLeod, J.J. Holst, and D.L. Harmon. 2011. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 94:888-898.

Koontz, A.F., S.W. El-Kadi, D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, J.C. Matthews, J.A. Boling, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Effect of ractopamine on whole body and splanchnic energy metabolism in Holstein steers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 90:77-85.

Liao, S.F., D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, K.R. McLeod, J.A. Boling, and J.C. Matthews. 2010. The Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers Differentially Express Sugar Transporter mRNA in Response to Abomasal vs Ruminal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate. Journal of Animal Science 88:306-314, doi.10.2527jas.2009-1992.

Riddell, J.B., D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, and K.R. McLeod. 2010. Addition of a Bacillus based probiotic to the diet of preruminant calves: Influence on growth, health, and blood parameters. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine 8:78-85.

Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, N.B. Kristensen, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alters amino acid fluxes across the portal-drained viscera of ruminant calves. In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition EAAP publ. No. 127 G. M. Crovetto (Ed.). pp. 199-200.

Taylor-Edwards, C.C., D.G. Burrin, J.C. Matthews, K.R. McLeod, J.J. Holst, and D.L. Harmon. 2010. Expression of proglucagon and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor mRNA in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and the influence of energy intake. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 29:181-193.

Xu, M., M. Rinker, K.R. McLeod, D.L. Harmon. 2010. Yucca schidigera extract decreases in vitro methane production in a variety of forages and diets. Animal Feed Science Technology 159:18-26.

Taylor-Edwards, C.C., N.A. Elam, S.E. Kitts, K.R. McLeod, D.E. Axe, E.S. Vanzant, N.B. Kristensen, and D.L. Harmon. Influence of slow-release urea on nitrogen balance and portal-drained visceral nutrient flux in beef steers.Journal of Animal Science 209-221. 2009.

Taylor-Edwards, C.C., G. Hibbard, S.E. Kitts, K.R. McLeod, D.E. Axe, E.S. Vanzant, N.B. Kristensen, and D.L. Harmon. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 87:200-208. 2009.

Liao, S.F., D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, K.R. McLeod, J.A. Boling, and J.C. Matthews. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter mRNA in response to abomasal vs ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate. Journal of Animal Science. Published online: doi.10.2527jas.2009-2101. 2009.

Liao, S.F., E.S. Vanzant, D.L. Harmon, K.R. McLeod, J.A. Boling, and J.C. Matthews. Ruminal and abomasal starch hydrolysate infusions selectively decrease the expression of cationic amino acid transporter mRNA by small intestinale of forage-fed beef steers. Journal of Dairy Science 92:1124-1135. 2009.

El-Kadi, S.W., R.L. Baldwin, K.R. McLeod, N.E. Sunny, and B.J. Bequette. Glutamate is the major anaplerotic substrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of isolated rumen epithelial and duodenal mucosal cells from beef cattle. Journal of Nutrition 139(5):869-875. 2009.

Liao, S.F., M.J. Alman, E.S. Vanzant, E.D. Miles, D.L. Harmon, K.R. McLeod, J.A. Boling, and J.C. Matthews. Basal Expression of Nucleoside Transporter mRNA Differs Among Small Intestinal Epithelia of Beef Steers and Is Differentially Altered by Ruminal or Abomasal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate. Journal of Dairy Science 91:1570-1584. 2008

El-Kadi, S.W., K.R. McLeod, N.A. Elam, S.E. Kitts, C.C. Taylor, D.L. Harmon, and E.S. Vanzant. Nutrient net absorption across the portal-drained viscera of forage-fed beef steers: Quantitative assessment and application to a nutritional prediction model. Journal of Animal Science 86: 2277-2287. 2008.

Yamka, R.M., K.R. McLeod, D.L. Harmon, H.C. Freetly, and W D. Schoenherr. 2007. The impact of dietary protein source on observed and predicted metabolizable energy of dry extruded dog foods. Journal of Animal Science 85:204-212.

Tricarico, J.M., M.D. Abney, M.L. Galyean, K.C. Hanson, K.R. McLeod, and D.L. Harmon. 2007. The effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science 85:802-811.

McLeod, K.R., R.L. Baldwin, VI, M.B. Solomon, and R.G. Baumann. 2007. Influence of ruminal and postruminal carbohydrate infusion on visceral organ mass and adipose tissue accretion in growing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 85:2256-2270.

Liao, S.F., M.J. Alman, E.S. Vanzant, E.D. Miles, D.L. Harmon, K.R. McLeod, J.A. Boling, and J.C. Matthews. 2007. Basal expression of nucleoside transport mRNA differs among small intestinal epithelia of beef steers and is differentially altered by ruminal or abomasal infusion of starch hydrolysate. Journal of Dairy Science doi:10.3168/jds.2007-0763.

Kitts, S.E., J.C. Matthews, K.K. Schillo, T.S. Rumsey, T.H. Elasser, S. Kahl, R.L. Baldwin, and K.R. McLeod. 2007. Effects of Chlortetracycline and Synovex-S® on Growth Rate and on Plasma Growth Hormone and Thyroid Hormone Concentrations Following Administration of Thyroid-releasing Hormone and GH-releasing Hormone in Beef Steers. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 87:327-341.

Baldwin, R.L., and K.R. McLeod. 2007. Influence of abomasal carbohydrates on subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric adipose lipogenic and lipolytic rates in growing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 2271-2282.

Kitts, S.E., D.L. Harmon, E.S. Vanzant, and K.R. McLeod. Effects of chlortetracycline (CTC) and Revalor-S on thegrowth performance and carcass quality traits of finishing beef steers. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances5: 70-76. 2006.

Baldwin, R.L., VI, K.R. McLeod, and A.V. Capuco. Visceral tissue growth and proliferation during the bovine lactation cycle. Journal of Dairy Science 87:2977-2986. 2004.

Baldwin, R.L., VI, K.R. McLeod, J.L. Klotz, and R.N. Hittmann. Rumen development, intestinal growth, and hepatic metabolism in the pre- and post- weaning ruminant. Journal of Dairy Science 87(E. Suppl.):E55-E65. 2004.

Moallem, U., G.E. Dahl, E.K. Duffy, A.V. Capuco, K.R. McLeod, R.L. Baldwin, and R.A. Erdman. Bovine somatotropin and rumen undegradable protein effects on organ and tissue weights and components of growth of prepubertal dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 87:3869-3880. 2004.

Rodriguez, S.M., K.C. Guimaraes, J.C. Matthews, K.R. McLeod, R.L. Baldwin VI, and D.L. Harmon. Influence of abomasal carbohydrates on small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter activity and abundance in steers. Journal of Animal Science 82:3015-3023. 2004

Professional Societies

American Society of Animal Science, 1985-current.

Canadian Society of Animal Science, 2010-current

Gamma Sigma Delta, The Honor Society of Agriculture, 1990-current.

American Registry of Professional Animal Scientist, 1989-1991.

Committee Assignments in Professional Societies

North American Committee member, EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition.

Member of the Ruminant Nutrition Committee for the Joint Meeting of the American Society of Animal Science and American Dairy Science Association (2016-2017).

Member of the Ruminant Nutrition Committee for the Joint Meeting of American Society of Animal Science and Canadian Society of Animal Science (2015-2016).

Member of Awards Committee (Ruminant Nutrition) for the American Society of Animal Science, 2003

Editorial Board member for the Journal of Animal Science, 1997-1999.

Editorial Board member for the Journal of Animal Science, 2000-2002.

Honor and Awards

2016 Thomas Poe Cooper Research Award

USDA, ARS, Outstanding Performance Award (2001).

USDA, ARS, Award of Excellence (2000).

USDA, ARS, Outstanding Performance Award (1997).

USDA, ARS, Certificate of Merit, Superior effort in the area of safety (1995).

Gamma Sigma Delta Outstanding Ph.D. Student Scholarship, University of Kentucky, 1993.

National Feed Ingredients Association Scholarship, 1991.

Gamma Sigma Delta, The Honor Society of Agriculture (member).

Fraternity of Alpha Zeta (member).