2014 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF on the performance of boiler chicks fed different types of diet.
T. Ao, K. McKinney, L. M. Macalintal, M. A. Paul, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson
Allzyme SSF is a naturally fermented product with multiple enzyme activities including carbohydrase, protease and phytase. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing Allzyme SSF in diets containing alternative feed ingredients with varying nutrient densities on the performance of broiler chicks. A 2 × 3 factorial dietary treatment structure was used with 2 enzyme levels: no enzyme or + 0.02% Allzyme SSF and 3 types of diet: corn-soy diet with low nutrient density; corn-soy-DDGs diet with normal nutrient density; corn-soyDDGs diet with low nutrient density. The normal nutrient density diet contained 3050 Kcal ME/kg, 22% CP, 0.45% available P and 1.0% Ca while the low nutrient density diet was designed to contain 75 kcal/kg less ME, 2.0% less CP and 0.1% less Ca and available P. A total of 288 1-d old chicks were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments with 8 replicate groups of 6 chicks. The chicks were raised in pullet cages in an environmentally controlled room for 21d with free access to feed and water. Data were subjected to ANOVA for a 2 × 3 factorial design using the linear model of Statistix V. 9. Mean differences were determined using Fisher’s LSD test. No interactive effects were detected between the 2 factors. Chicks fed the low nutrient corn-soy diet had lower (P < 0.01) weight gain and gain to feed ratio during both the 1–14d and 1–21d periods compared with those fed normal nutrient density DDGs diet. Chicks fed the low nutrient DDGs diet had lower (P < 0.01) weight gain and gain to feed ratio compared with those fed low nutrient corn-soy diet. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF increased (P < 0.01) gain to feed ratio of chicks during entire 21d period. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF in both corn-soybean meal diet and corn-soy-DDGs diet can improve growth performance of broiler chicks.

2014 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effect of a proprietary premix on productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens fed high distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets during the second phase of production
A. Pescatore, M. van Benschoten, L. Good, A. Cantor, T. Ao, R. Samuel, M. Ford, W.D. King, K. Brennan, J. Pierce
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding up to 35% DDGS with a proprietary premix (enzyme and antioxidant, Alltech, Inc.) on the productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens from 41 to 76 wks of age. Hy-Line Brown hens (288) were randomly allocated to five treatment groups (12 birds per pen). Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) a corn-soybean positive control, 2) 25% DDGS with reduction of 0.1% Ca & P, 3) Diet 2 plus premix, 4) 35% DDGS with reduction of 0.1% Ca & P, and 5) Diet 4 plus premix. Diets used from 16 to 40 wks of age were formulated to meet or exceed NRC recommendations except for available P and total Ca in the DDGS diets. In the second phase of production, crude protein was reduced from 18 to 16%. Egg quality was analyzed by randomly selecting 6 eggs from each replicate group every 4 wk. No significant differences in mortality, egg weight, egg shell percent, or egg shell breaking strength were noted during the second phase of production. Yolk weight was decreased at 48 wks of age by the DDGS diets (P=0.006). Yolk color values were significantly improved by the DDGS treatments. Hens fed DDGS diets had darker yolks compared with the control from 44 to 56 wks of age (P<0.05), but did not differ after 60 wks of age. Yolk redness and yellowness values were improved (P<0.026) throughout the study by DDGS. The 25% DDGS treatments had a further increase in yolk red and yellow pigmentation compared with the 35% DDGS and control treatments. Overall, no differences in body weight and feed intake were observed. From 7376 wks of age feed intake was increased with the inclusion of DDGS (P<0.001). Additionally, reduced body weight was observed at 76 wks of age with the inclusion of DDGS (P=0.013) and was partially alleviated with the premix. Hen-day egg production from 41 through 75 wks of age tended to be lower (P=0.064) with addition of the premix compared with the control. In conclusion, feeding up to 35% DDGS did not negatively impact egg quality but resulted in reduced body weight and feed intake towards the end of production.

2013 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Program Nutrition strategy on the productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets
M. van Benschoten, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, T. Ao, R. Samuel, M. Ford, W.D. King, J.Pierce  
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding up to 35% DDGS with Programmed Nutrition (PN) premix on the productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens from pre-lay through the first phase of production (25 weeks). This experiment utilized 288 Hyline Brown hens that were randomly allocated to five treatment groups (12 birds per replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of a 1) Corn-soybean (positive control), 2) 25% DDGS, 3) 25% DDGS with Alltech PN Broiler Grower Premix®, 4) 35% DDGS, and 5) 35% DDGS with Alltech PN Broiler Grower Premix®. Diets were formulated to meet NRC recommendations with reduced available P (0.29 vs. 0.19 %) and Ca (4.2% vs. 4.1%) in the DDGS diets. Egg quality was analyzed by randomly selecting 6 eggs from each replicate group every 4 weeks. PN premix added to 35% DDGS significantly improved Haugh Unit values (P<0.05) compared with the control diet. Yolk color lightness (L*) values decreased, while red (a*), and yellow values (b*) increased (P<0.001) with the inclusion of DDGS. Dietary treatment had no effect on shell breaking strength, egg weight and yolk weight. Dietary inclusion of DDGS at 35% decreased hen-day production compared to the positive control (P=0.03). PN premix alleviated some of the deleterious effects of 35% DDGS inclusion by improving hen-day production values. Body weight and feed conversion rate were unaffected by up to 35% inclusion of DDGS. However, DDGS inclusion reduced feed intake (FI) in early lay (P=0.04). Adding PN premix significantly improved the deleterious effects of DDGS on FI at both 25 and 35% inclusion levels. These results indicate that inclusion of up to 35% DDGS can reduce FI in early lay and overall egg production, while adding PN premix may lessens these negative effects and increase Haugh Units.

Programmed nutrition strategy on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets.
M. van Benschoten, L. R. Good, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, T. Ao, R. S. Samuel, M. J. Ford, W. D. King, and J. L. Pierce
Feed ingredient prices and competition for grains have increased interest in the use of high levels of DDGS in poultry diets. This study evaluated the effects of including 25 and 35% DDGS in corn-soybean meal diets with or without PN Grower Broiler premix (Alltech, Inc.) on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens from 27 to 50 weeks of production. A total of 288 Hy-Line W-36® hens were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups with 12 birds per replicate. At 16 weeks of age, hens were fed the following diets: 1) corn soybean meal (positive control), 2) 25% DDGS, 3) 25% DDGS plus PN premix, 4) 35% DDGS, and 5) 35% DDGS plus PN premix. Diets were formulated to meet NRC recommendations with reduced available P (0.29 vs. 0.19%) and Ca (4.2 vs. 4.1%) in DDGS diets. At 27 weeks of production, protein levels in the diets were reduced from 18 to 16% CP. Six eggs were collected per replicate every 4 weeks for egg quality analysis. During wk 34 of production, diets with 35% DDGS reduced yolk weight (P = 0.002). However, no significant treatment effects were noted on egg weight, Haugh units, percent shell, shell breaking strength, and yolk weight parameters averaged over 27 to 50 weeks of production. Inclusion of DDGS decreased lightness (L*) values and increased red (a*) yolk color values (P < 0.001). Addition of 25% DDGS to the diets increased yellow (b*) yolk color values (P = 0.001) when compared with the control and 35% DDGS diets. Overall hen day production was not affected by dietary treatment. However, feed intake (P = 0.01) and feed per dozen eggs (P = 0.02) increased with the addition of dietary DDGS from 27 to 50 weeks. At wk 50 of production, inclusion of 35% DDGS decreased (P = 0.02) body weight when compared with the control and returned to control level with the addition of the PN premix. This experiment indicates inclusion of up to 35% DDGS does not have a significant negative effect on egg production and egg quality from 27 to 50 weeks of production, and that addition of PN premix to 35% DDGS diets may alleviate negative effects on body weight.

Effect of a proprietary premix on productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens fed high distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diets during the second phase of production.
A. Pescatore, M. van Benschoten, L. Good, A. Cantor, T. Ao, R. Samuel, M. Ford, W.D. King, K. Brennan, J. Pierce
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding up to 35% DDGS with a proprietary premix (enzyme and antioxidant, Alltech, Inc.) on the productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens from 41 to 76 wks of age. Hy-Line Brown hens (288) were randomly allocated to five treatment groups (12 birds per pen). Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) a corn-soybean positive control, 2) 25% DDGS with reduction of 0.1% Ca & P, 3) Diet 2 plus premix, 4) 35% DDGS with reduction of 0.1% Ca & P, and 5) Diet 4 plus premix. Diets used from 16 to 40 wks of age were formulated to meet or exceed NRC recommendations except for available P and total Ca in the DDGS diets. In the second phase of production, crude protein was reduced from 18 to 16%. Egg quality was analyzed by randomly selecting 6 eggs from each replicate group every 4 wk. No significant differences in mortality, egg weight, egg shell percent, or egg shell breaking strength were noted during the second phase of production. Yolk weight was decreased at 48 wks of age by the DDGS diets (P=0.006). Yolk color values were significantly improved by the DDGS treatments. Hens fed DDGS diets had darker yolks compared with the control from 44 to 56 wks of age (P<0.05), but did not differ after 60 wks of age. Yolk redness and yellowness values were improved (P<0.026) throughout the study by DDGS. The 25% DDGS treatments had a further increase in yolk red and yellow pigmentation compared with the 35% DDGS and control treatments. Overall, no differences in body weight and feed intake were observed. From 7376 wks of age feed intake was increased with the inclusion of DDGS (P<0.001). Additionally, reduced body weight was observed at 76 wks of age with the inclusion of DDGS (P=0.013) and was partially alleviated with the premix. Hen-day egg production from 41 through 75 wks of age tended to be lower (P=0.064) with addition of the premix compared with the control. In conclusion, feeding up to 35% DDGS did not negatively impact egg quality but resulted in reduced body weight and feed intake towards the end of production.

2012 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Inclusion of Allzyme SSF® in brown layer diets containing up to 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) reduces the detrimental effects on shell quality.
A. D. Quant, A.J. Pecatore, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of including up to 30% DDGS in brown layer diets with or without an enzyme supplement (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) throughout an entire production cycle (60 weeks production). This experiment utilized 288 Hy-Line Brown hens that were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (12 hens per replicate group). Dietary treatments included a 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®, 4) 30% DDGS, and 5) 30% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®. In comparison with the positive control diet, diets containing DDGS were calculated to contain reduced levels of AME (2877 vs. 2794 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.22 vs. 4.10%), and available P (0.29% vs. 0.17% for the 15% DDGS diet, and 0.23% for the 30% DDGS diet). Six eggs from each replicate were randomly selected every 4 weeks for determination of egg quality. Dietary inclusion of DDGS resulted in a significant decrease in shell weight when compared with the positive control (P<0.01), however this effect was alleviated by the addition of Allzyme SSF® to diets containing 15% DDGS. Similarly, shell breaking strength was reduced by the inclusion of DDGS compared to the positive control (P<0.01). This effect was eliminated by the addition of Allzyme SSF® to diets containing 15% DDGS (P<0.01). Humerus breaking strength was significantly lower than the positive control in diets containing 15% DDGS (P=0.03), however values for the tibia breaking strength were unaffected by dietary treatment. The inclusion of DDGS resulted in increased Haugh unit values compared with the positive control (P=0.02). Yolk color was affected by DDGS inclusion, regardless of enzyme inclusion, as L* (lightness) values decreased, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values increased as dietary DDGS inclusion increased (P<0.01 for all). Hen body weight however, was significantly lower than that of the positive control for all diets containing DDGS (P<0.01). There was no effect of dietary treatment on egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, hen body weight, feed conversion, and hen day production through 60 weeks of production. This study indicates that the detrimental effects on shell quality from brown layers fed DDGS may be alleviated by the addition of Allzyme SSF®.

Evaluating the effect of feeding up to 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and Allzyme SSF® on egg production and egg quality of white layers through 60 weeks production.
A.D. Quant, A.J. Pescatore, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King
The inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in poultry diets has become more prevalent as a cost-cutting strategy in response to the high demand of corn for fuel ethanol production. Previous work in our laboratory have indicated that inclusion of up to 30% DDGS in diets fed to laying hens resulted in limited detrimental effects on egg quality through the first half of a production cycle (30 weeks). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding layer diets including up to 30% DDGS with or without an enzyme supplement (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) throughout an entire production cycle (60 weeks). This experiment utilized 288 Hy-Line W-36 hens that were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (12 hens per replicate). Dietary treatments included a 1) positive control (cornsoybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®, 4) 30% DDGS, and 5) 30% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®. In comparison to the positive control diet, diets containing DDGS were calculated to contain reduced levels of ME (2877 vs. 2794 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.22 vs. 4.10%), and available P (0.29% vs. 0.17% for the 15% DDGS diet, and 0.23% for the 30% DDGS diet). Six eggs from each replicate were randomly selected every 4 weeks for determination of egg quality. Overall during the 60 week production cycle, diets containing 30% DDGS and Allzyme SSF® resulted in greater Haugh unit values than the other treatments (P=0.01). Yolk color was affected by DDGS inclusion, regardless of enzyme inclusion, as L* (lightness) values decreased, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values increased as dietary DDGS inclusion increased (P<0.01 for all). Other egg quality parameters were unaffected by dietary treatment (shell breaking strength; whole egg, shell, yolk, and albumin weights). There was no effect of dietary treatment on hen body weight, feed conversion, and hen day production through 60 weeks of production. This study suggests that DDGS can be included up to 30% in layer diets without any detrimental effects on hen performance or egg quality.

Evaluation of methodology to determine TMEn of feed ingredients.
R. Samuel, T. Ao, M. Ford, A. Cantor, A. Pescatore, J. Pierce
Allzyme SSF is a naturally fermented product with activities of multiple enzymes. The recommended inclusion may impact the TMEn content of feedstuffs and diets composed of those feedstuffs for poultry. Corn meal, DDGS, SBM, canola meal, corn-SBM diet, corn-SBM diet with 70% replacement of SBM by DDGS and wheat-SBM diet were prepared with and without Allzyme SSF. Twenty-four roosters were housed individually in metabolism cages with an individual tray for excreta collection. Six birds were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments within each of four trials. Roosters were trained to a single 1 h ad libitum feeding period per day until feed intake was at least 30 g. Birds were fasted for at least 24 h before feeding for 1 h which was immediately followed by 24 h excreta collection which was started after feed withdrawal (collection day 1). Feeding and collection was repeated similarly on day 2. Finally, excreta was collected from fasted birds for 24 h to determine endogenous losses (collection day 3). Results from excreta collection days were not different, therefore results were pooled by diet. Endogenous excreta were pooled by diet. Feed intake exceeded or equaled 30 g per d. There were no differences in feed intake (P>0.19) with or without Allzyme SSF in the diets, except feed intake was greater (P<0.05) for birds fed DDGS without Allzyme SSF (47.7 vs. 37.1 g/d). Excreta weights before or after drying were not different (P>0.06) due to the inclusion of Allzyme SSF, except the weight of excreta from birds fed corn meal with Allzyme SSF was greater (P<0.01) before drying. True ME digestibility was greater (P=0.03) for birds fed canola meal with Allzyme SSF than without (57.3 vs. 51.5%); there were no other differences. Energy digestibility ranged from 51 to 90 % for the individual feedstuffs. Birds appeared to adjust their feed intakes according to the energy digestibility of the diets. Inclusion of DDGS in the corn-SBM diet very slightly reduced energy digestibility (83.3 vs 81.0%; P<0.01). The TMEn (kcal/g) was not different due to the inclusion of Allzyme SSF in any of the diets (P>0.13). Therefore, it appears that using intact (non-cecectomized) roosters to determine the effect of Allzyme SSF on the TMEn of individual feedstuffs or diets is not a viable experimental approach.

2011 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of brown egg layers thorugh 60 weeks of egg production.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King and H.D. Gillespie. 
The effects of feeding diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY,) on egg production parameters were evaluated in brown shell hens during 60 wk of production. At 17 wk of age, 420 Hy-Line Brown hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Dietary treatments were 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + Allzyme SSF, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + Allzyme SSF. Compared with the control diet, DDGS diets had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS and 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%). Feed intake was significantly (SSF to 15% DDGS diets increased HDP. The depression in egg weight due to both levels of DDGS was corrected by Allzyme SSF. Haugh unit values were increased by DDGS. The reduction in shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength due to DDGS were partially alleviated by Allzyme SSF. Feeding 15 or 23% DDGS with or without enzymes decreased yolk lightness (L*), while feeding 23% DDGS increased yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values, compared with the 15% DDGS and control diets. These results indicate that negative effects of feeding high levels of DDGS can be partially overcome by including Allzyme SSF in the diet.

The use of distillers dried grains with solubles in post peak diets for laying hens.
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L. M. Macalintal, M. J. Ford, W. D. King, and H. D. Gillespie.
Previous research in our laboratory indicated that the inclusion of distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) in laying hen diets at levels up to 23% negatively impacted egg size and other egg parameters when fed during the entire production cycle. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding DDGS to laying hens during postpeak egg production. The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% DDGS with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg qualityof laying hens was evaluated during Week 44 to 60 of the production cycle. In each of 2 experiments 420 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Hy-Line W-36 hens were used in Experiment 1, while Hy-Line Brown hens were used in Experiment 2. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1)positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs.4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. There were no significant effects of treatments on egg production, feed intake or feed conversion in either experiment. In Experiment 2, there was a significant decreasein percent shell and specific gravity for the brown hens fed diets with 15 or 23% DDGS. In that experiment, the addition of Allzyme SSF to the DDGS diets improved shell quality to the level of the control diet. No other significant effects on egg quality were observed in the 2 experiments. Eggs from hens fed 15 and 23% DDGS with or without enzymes has lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from the control treatment. Eggs from hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (*) values compared with those from the 15% DDGS and control treatments, indicating a darker yolk color. The current studies suggest that DDGS can be included in the post-peak production diets up to 23% with minimal effects on performance or egg quality

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of egg layers.
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg quality of laying hens was evaluated during 60 weeks of production. At 17 weeks of age, 420 Hy-Line W-36 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3)15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were randomly collected from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (< 0.05) decreased by DDGS. Hen-day egg production was lower for DDGS +enzymes during the 60 wk production period. There was no effect of treatments on feed efficiency. Egg weight, shell weight, percent shell and albumen weight were decreased by 23% DDGS compared with the 15% inclusion rate. Eggs from hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS ± enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) vs. hens fed the control diet. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or the control diet, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS can be included in the diet up to 15% with minimal effects on performance and egg quality and can be used to improve yolk color. The addition of 23% DDGS to the diet negatively impacted some of the production parameters.

2010 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and an enzyme supplement on performance and egg quality of brown egg layers.
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
Effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with soluble (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY)was evaluated in brown egg laying hens. Egg production and egg quality was evaluated during 36 wk of production. At 17 wk of age, 420 Hy-Line Brown hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) formulated to be adequate in all nutrients 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were collected from each replicate every 4 wk to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (< 0.05) decreased by DDGS during wks 5–8 and 17–20. Dietary treatment did not affect feed conversion. Allzyme SSF increased HDP during wks 21–24. Egg weight at wk 20 and yolk weight at wk 20 were decreased by DDGS. Percent yolk was not significantly affected by the addition of DDGS. The diet with 15% DDGS + enzyme increased albumen wt at Week 20. The diet with 23% DDGS + enzyme increased percent shell at wk 36 and shell breaking strength at wks 4, 32 and 36. Haugh unit values were significantly increased by DDGS at wks 16 and 28. Shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength were initially lower for DDGS diets at 4 wks of production. By 36 wks the addition of Allzyme SSF to the DDGS diets improved shell weight, percent shell, specific gravity and shell breaking strength. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, +/− enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*). Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yolk yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or control diet. This study suggests that DDGS could be included to the diet up to 23% without negative effects on feed efficiency and can be used to improve yolk color. Using Allzyme SSF in DDGS diets increase shell quality and albumen weight.

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation on production performance and egg quality of laying hens through 36 weeks of egg production. 
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and H.D. Gillespie.
The effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance and egg quality of laying hens was evaluated during 36 weeks of production. At 17 weeks of age, 420 Hy-Line W-36 hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 7 replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of feeding the following diets: 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + enzymes, 4) 23% DDGS, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. Diets containing DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available P (0.17% for 15% DDGS or 0.2% for 23% DDGS vs. 0.29%), compared with the control diet. Six eggs were randomly collected from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Feed intake was significantly (< 0.05) decreased by DDGS during wk 9–12, 17–20 and 25–28. During the 36 weeks of production Allzyme SSF reduced feed intake by 2.6 g/hen/d. Hen-day production was lower for DDGS + enzymes during wk 29–32. There was no effect of treatments on feed efficiency. Egg weight at wk 8, 12, 16 and 20 and shell weight at wk 12 were decreased by 23% DDGS. The diet with 15% DDGS + enzymes increased yolk weight at wk 12 and 16 and % yolk at wk 16. Albumen weight was significantly increased by 15% DDGS at wk 8 and 16. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS +/− enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) vs. hens fed the control diet. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher yolk redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values vs. hens fed 15% DDGS or the control diet, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS can be included in the diet up to 23% with minimal effects on performance and egg quality and can be used to improve yolk color. Using Allzyme SSF in DDGS diets with lower nutrient density can reduce feed intake. Feeding diets with 15% DDGS plus Allzyme SSF increased yolk weight and percent yolk.

2010 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and enzyme supplementation on egg quality and yolk color. 
P. Rossi, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King III, and H.D. Gillespie.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on egg quality and yolk color. A total of 420 hens Hy-Line W-36 egg layers were randomly assigned to five treatments with seven replicate groups of 12 hens each. Treatments consisted of the following diets:1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 23% DDGS, 4) 15% DDGS + enzymes, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. The four diets with DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), calcium (4.1 vs. 4.2 %) and available phosphorus (0.17% for diets 15% DDGS or 0.2% for diets 23% DDGS vs. 0.29% for the control diet). Egg production was monitored for 24 weeks. Six eggs were collected randomly from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Egg production, percent shell, shell breaking strength or Haugh units were not significantly affected by the addition of 15 or 23 % DDGS to the diet. Egg weights were significantly depressed with the addition of 23% DDGS to the diet. The addition of enzyme to the 15% DDGS diet significantly increased yolk weight at 12 and 16 weeks of production. Yolk color was impacted by the addition of DDGS to the diet. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, with or without enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from hens fed the control diet. Eggs from hens fed the control diet had lowest yolk yellowness (b*) score compared with those from other treatments. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher redness (a*) values compared with those fed 15% DDGS and control, indicating a darker yolk color. The current study suggests that DDGS is a useful feed ingredient for laying hens. It could be included to the diet up to 23% without negative effects on egg quality. The addition of DDGS to the diets impacted yolk color and may be useful in specialty markets. Addition of Allzyme SSF® in DDGS diets with lower nutrient density had no effect on egg quality, suggesting that higher DDGS inclusion levels or lower levels of ME, Ca and available P should be evaluated in the future. 

Effect of the addition of distillers dried grains with soluble and an enzyme supplement to diets for brown egg layers on egg quality and yolk color. 
A.J. Pescatore, P. Rossi, A.H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, L.M. Macalintal, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, III, and H. D. Gillespie. 
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing 15 or 23% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without a naturally occurring enzyme complex (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on quality and yolk color of brown shelled eggs. A total of 420 hens Hy-Line Brown egg layers were randomly assigned to five treatments with seven replicate groups of 12 hens each. Dietary treatments consisted of feeding the following diets:1) positive control (corn-soybean meal) formulated to be adequate in all nutrients 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 23% DDGS, 4) 15% DDGS + enzymes, and 5) 23% DDGS + enzymes. The four diets with DDGS had reduced levels of ME (2800 vs. 2877 Kcal/kg), calcium (4.1 vs. 4.2%) and available phosphorus (0.17% for diets 15% DDGS or 0.2% for diets 23% DDGS vs. 0.29% for the control diet). Egg production was monitored for 24 weeks. Six eggs were collected randomly from each replicate every 4 weeks to determine egg quality. Egg production, percent shell or shell breaking strength were not significantly affected by the addition of 15 or 23 % DDGS to the diet. Egg weight, yolk weight and albumen weight were depressed by the inclusion of DDGS in the diet. At 20 weeks of production there was no difference in albumen weight between the control and the 15% DDGS diet with Allzyme SSF®. At 16 weeks of production Haugh units were lower for the control treatment compared to the DDGS treatments. Yolk color was impacted by the addition of DDGS to the diet. Hens fed 15 or 23% DDGS, with or without enzymes, had lower yolk lightness (L*) compared with eggs from hens fed the control diet. Eggs from hens fed the control diet had lowest yolk yellowness (b*) score compared with those from other treatments. Hens fed 23% DDGS had higher redness (a*) values compared with those fed 15% DDGS and control, indicating a darker yolk color. The depression of egg weight with the inclusion of DDGS suggests it may be a useful tool to control egg size in brown egg layers. The addition of DDGS to the diets impacted yolk color and may be useful in specialty markets.

2009 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Chicken selenoprotein P response to viral infection as influenced by dietary selenium source. 
J. Read-Snyder, F.W. Edens, C.M. Ashwell, A. Cantor, and A. Pescatore.
Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, functions in the form of selenoproteins, and selenoprotein P (SelP) plays a role in Se transport, detoxification and antioxidant defense. Avian reovirus (ARV) infection can induce inflammatory responses in which oxidative activity is elevated. Se has an antiviral property against RNA viruses such as ARV. Thus, it is important to know how Se sources influence the expression of SelP in different tissues. Cobb 500 broiler breeder eggs were hatched and chicks were placed into two isolation rooms in brooder batteries and were given parental diets [isocaloric Torula yeast diets consisting either 1) no selenium (less than 0.02 ppm), 2) Sel-Plex (organic selenium {Alltech, Nicholasville, KY} 0.3 ppm) or 3) sodium selenite(0.3 ppm)]. Hatchlings were placed in three dietary treatments in either Control or ARV-Infected groups (30 per group). AVR-Infected groups were given orally ARV-CU98 (10^4.2 pfu/chick) and Control chicks were given sterile water. At 7, 14, and 21 days of age, five chicks per treatment group were killed and 500 mg of brain, thymus, pancreas, bursa of Fabricius, and liver were dissected and stored in RNALater at -20°C. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR assays developed for chicken SelP and 18s rRNA. Changes in gene expression were determined by the delta-delta-Ct method. The effects of treatment were determined by ANOVA. The individual differences in Ct ratio among different ages/diets/virus were significantly different (p<0.05). Overall, Se increased SelP expression regardless of source. In liver and brain, SelP expression decreased with age. SelP peaked at 14d in the pancreas, but the bursa SelP expression was lowest at 14d. Generally, there was a transitory increase in SelP expression at 7d in ARV-infected birds followed by decreasing SelP expression. Expression of SelP can be modified by viral infection regardless of Se source. 

2008 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Ammonia release and nutrient content of laying hen manure as affected by distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation.
A.J. Pescatore, A. Singh, R.S. Gates, A. H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, K.A. Dawson, T. Ao, and M.J. Ford.
The effects of using distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without enzyme supplementation in laying hen diets on the nutrient content and ammonia release of manure was evaluated. Hens were fed one of five diets: 1) corn-soybean meal diet (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg ME); 2) corn-soybean meal diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg); 3) Diet 2 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation (Allzyme DDGS®, Alltech Inc.); 4) low energy corn-soybean mean diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2550 Kcal/kg ME); and 5) Diet 4 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation. Manure samples were collected from eight groups of six hens for each of the dietary treatments. An equilibrium flux chamber technique was used to determine ammonia gas release from the manure. Manure samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content and percent N, P and K. There was no effect of treatments on moisture content or pH. Ammonia release was highest for hens fed the corn-soybean meal diet (Diet 1) and lowest for those fed the low energy DDGS diet (Diet 4). Total ammoniacal nitrogen content for all of the DDGS diets was higher than for the corn-soybean meal diet. Manure from hens fed the DDGS diets had lower P and K content than that from hens fed the corn-soybean diet. Total nitrogen content was lowest for manure from hens fed diets supplemented with the Allzyme DDGS® enzyme preparation (Diets 3 and 5). The results indicate that inclusion of DDGS and enzymes in laying hen diets can affect ammonia release and nutrient content of the manure.