Contact Information

Dr. Tony Pescatore, Ph.D.
Interim Department Chair

900 W.P. Garrigus Building Lexington, KY 40546-0215

+1 (859) 257-2686

Merlin Lindemann

Merlin Lindemann

Dr. Merlin Lindermann

Merlin Lindemann


Instruction Research Faculty
607 W.P. Garrigus Building Lexington, KY 40546-0215

Last Revised: Oct 16th, 2023

Professional Biography

Major Instructional Responsbilities

Teach the undergraduate Principles of Animal Nutrition course.

Major Research Interests

Dietary modifications of nitrogen and phosphorous related to performance and waste management.

Determination of the feeding value of new byproduct feeds.

Evaluations of trace minerals for swine (including source and level, as well as novel minerals).

Assessment of responses to organic chromium supplementation during growth and reproduction in multiple species.

Determination of the effects of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio on reproductive and immunological responses in swine.

Effects of management/equipment on performance of swine.

    Professional Positions

    2001 - present; Professor of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky.

    1994 - 2001; Associate Professor of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky.

    1987-1994;  Associate Professor of Animal Science, Tidewater Agricultural Experiment Station - Suffolk, VPI&SU.

    1981-1986; Assistant Professor of Animal Science, Tidewater Agricultural Experiment Station - Suffolk, VPI&SU.

    Selected Refereed Journal Articles on Original Research

    Adeola, O., M.J. Azain, S.D. Carter, T.D. Crenshaw, M.J. Estienne, B.J. Kerr, M.D. Lindemann, C.V. Maxwell, P.S. Miller, M.C. Shannon, and E. van Heugten. 2015. A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kg pigs J. Anim. Sci. 93:5743-5753.

    Jang, Y.D., J.Y. Ma, J.S. Monegue, H.J. Monegue, R.L. Stuart, and M.D. Lindemann. 2015. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 93:5273-5282. 

    Pettey, L.A., G.L. Cromwell, Y.D. Jang, and M.D. Lindemann. 2015. Estimation of calcium and phosphorus content in growing and finishing pigs: Whole empty body components and relative accretion rates. J. Anim. Sci. 93:158-167. 

    Jang, Y.D., Y.L. Ma, and M.D. Lindemann. 2014. Intrauterine position affects fetal weight and crown-rump length throughout gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4400–4406. 

    Mahan, D.C., M. Azain, T.D. Crenshaw, G.L. Cromwell, C.R. Dove, S.W. Kim, M.D. Lindemann, P.S. Miller, J.E. Pettigrew, H. Stein, and E. van Heugten. 2014. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine. J. Anim. Sci. 92:4991-4997.

    Jang, Young Dal, Merlin D Lindemann, Eric van Heugten, Richard D Jones, Beob Gyun Kim, Charles V Maxwell, and J Scott Radcliffe. 2014. Effects of phytase supplementation on reproductive performance, apparent total tract digestibility of Ca and P and bone characteristics in gestating and lactating sows. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 27:178-193.

    Ma, Y.L., M.D. Lindemann, J.L. Pierce, J.M. Unrine, and G.L. Cromwell. 2014. Effect of inorganic or organic selenium supplementation on reproductive performance and tissue trace mineral concentrations in gravid-first-parity gilts, fetuses, and nursing piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 92:5541–5551. 

    Htoo, J.K., C.L. Zhu, L. Huber, C.F.M. de Lange, A.D. Quant, B.J. Kerr, G.L. Cromwell, and M.D. Lindemann. 2014. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for ten- to twenty-two-kilogram and twenty-four- to thirty-nine-kilogram pigs fed diets containing nonexcess levels of leucine. J. Anim. Sci. 92:3482-3490. 

    Jang, Y.D., M.D. Lindemann, H.J. Monegue, and R. Stuart. 2014. The effects of fat-soluble vitamin administration differ by oral administration or injection on plasma vitamin status of nursing pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science 27:674-682.

    Jang, Y.D., M.D. Lindemann, J.H. Agudelo, C.S. Escobar, B.J. Kerr, N. Inocencio, and G.L. Cromwell. 2014. Comparison of direct and indirect estimates of apparent total tract digestibility with effort to reduce variation by pooling of multiple day fecal samples J. Anim. Sci. 92:4566–4576. 

    Ma, Y.L., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, R. B. Cox, G. Rentfrow and J.L. Pierce. 2012. Evaluation of trace mineral source and pre-slaughter deletion of those minerals on performance, carcass characteristics, and pork quality in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:3833-3841. 

    Quant, A.D., M.D. Lindemann, B.J. Kerr, R.L. Payne, and G.L. Cromwell. 2012. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets. J Anim. Sci. 90:1270-1279.

    Liao, S.F., J.S. Monegue, M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, and J.C. Matthews. 2011. Dietary supplementation of boron differentially alters expression of borate transporter (NaBCl) mRNA by jejunum and kidney of growing pigs. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:901–912.

    Petersen, G.I., C. Pedersen, M.D. Lindemann, and H. H. Stein. 2011. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in inorganic phosphorus sources fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 89:460–466. 

    Agudelo, J.H., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell.  2010.  A comparison of two methods to assess nutrient digestibility in pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 133:74-77.

    Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2010. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiratory rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets. Biol. Trace Element Research 133 (2):181-196.

    McDowell, K.J., N.M. Williams, J.M. Donahue, K.E. Newman, M. Lindemann, D.W. Horohov and B.A. Webb.  2010. The role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome – a model for environmental causes of abortion. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1379-1387.

    Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2010. The effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, vital signs, and blood measurements of pigs during immune stress. Biol. Trace Elements Research 135:200 - 210.

    M.D. Lindemann, J.H. Cho, and M.Q. Wang. 2009. Chromium – An Essential Mineral. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 22:339-345.

    Wang, M.Q., Y.D. He, M.D. Lindemann, and Z.G. Jiang. 2009. Efficacy of Cr (III) supplementation on growth, carcass composition, blood metabolites, and endocrine parameters in finishing pigs. Asian - Australasian J. Anim Sci. 22:1414-1419.

    Lindemann, M.D., G.L. Cromwell, H.J. Monegue, and K.W. Purser. 2008. Effect of chromium source on tissue retention of chromium in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2971–2978.

    Lindemann, M.D., J.H. Brendemuhl, L.I. Chiba, C.S. Darroch, C.R. Dove, M.J. Estienne, and A.F. Harper. 2008. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows. J. Anim. Sci. 86:333-338.

    Agudelo, J.H., M. D. Lindemann, G. L. Cromwell, M. C. Newman, and R. D. Nimmo. 2007. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2173-2182.

    Bee, G., M. Calderini, C. Biolley, G. Guex, W. Herzog, and M.D. Lindemann. 2007. Changes in the histochemical properties and meat quality traits of porcine muscles during the growing-finishing period as affected by feed restriction, slaughter age or slaughter weight. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1030-1045. 

    Lindemann, M.D. and B.G. Kim. 2007. Technical note: A model to estimate individual feed intake of swine in group feeding. J. Anim. Sci. 85:972-975.

    Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, A. Balfagon and J.H. Agudelo. 2007. The correlation between passage rate of digesta and dry matter digestibility in various stages of swine. Livestock Sci. 109:81-84.

    de Souza, A.L.P., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2007. Supplementation of dietary enzymes has varying effects on apparent protein and amino acid digestibility in reproducing sows. Livestock Sci. 109:122-124.

    Wang, M.Q., Z.R. Xu, L.Y. Zha, and M.D. Lindemann. 2007. Effects of chromium nanocomposite supplementation on blood metabolites, endocrine parameters and immune traits in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 139:69-80. 


    Kim, B.G., M.D. Lindemann, M. Rademacher, J.J. Brennan, and G.L. Cromwell. 2006. Efficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analog free acid and DL-methionine as methionine sources for pigs. J. Anim Sci. 84:104-111.

    Xiong, Y.L., M.J. Gower, C. Li, C.A. Elmore, G.L. Cromwell, and M.D. Lindemann. 2006. Effect of dietary ractopamine on tenderness and postmortem protein degradation of pork muscle. Meat Sci. 73:600-604.

    Wang, M.Q., Z.R. Xu, L.Y. Zha, and M.D. Lindemann. 2006. Effects of chromium nanocomposite supplementation on blood metabolites, endocrine parameters and immune traits in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.12.004

    Pierce, J.L., G.L. Cromwell, M.D. Lindemann, L.E. Russell, and E.M. Weaver. 2005. Effects of spray-dried animal plasma and immunoglobulins on performance of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2876-2885.

    Lindemann, M.D., S.D. Carter, L.I. Chiba, C.R. Dove, F.M. LeMieux, and L.L. Southern. 2004. A regional evaluation of chromium tripicolinate supplementation of sows. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2972-2977.

    Van de Ligt, J.L.G., M.D. Lindemann, R.J. Harmon, H.J. Monegue and G.L. Cromwell. 2002. Effect of chromium tripicolinate supplementation on porcine immune response during the periparturient and neonatal period. J. Anim. Sci. 80:456-466.

    Meyer, T.A., M.D. Lindemann, G.L. Cromwell, H.J. Monegue, and N. Inocencio. 2002. Effects of pharmacological levels of zinc as zinc oxide on fecal zinc and mineral excretion in weanling pigs. Prof. Anim. Sci. 18:162-168.

    Hagen, Chad D., Merlin D. Lindemann, and Ken W. Purser. 2000. Effect of dietary chromium tripicolinate on productivity of sows under commercial conditions. Swine Health and Production 8(No.2):59-63.

    Lindemann, M.D., D.J. Blodgett, A.F. Harper, E.T. Kornegay, and J.A. Doerr. 1997. Appraisal of the value of selected clays and minerals in diets with and without aflatoxin-contaminated maize fed to young swine. J. Anim. and Feed Sciences 6 (4):507-519.

    Harper, A.F., M.D. Lindemann, and E.T. Kornegay. 1996. Fetal survival and conceptus development after 42 days of gestation in gilts and sows in response to folic acid supplementation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 76:157-160.

    Lindemann, M.D., C.M. Wood, A.F. Harper, E.T. Kornegay, and R.A. Anderson. 1995. Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain/feed and carcass characteristics in growing/finishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:457-465.

    Perez Rigau, A., M.D. Lindemann, E.T. Kornegay, A.F. Harper, and B.A. Watkins. 1995. Role of dietary lipids on fetal tissue fatty acid composition and fetal survival in swine at 42 days of gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1372-1380.

    Lindemann, M.D., D.J. Blodgett, E.T. Kornegay, and G.G. Schurig. 1993. Potential ameliorators of aflatoxicosis in weanling/growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 71:171-178.

    Schell, T.C., M.D. Lindemann, E.T. Kornegay, D.J. Blodgett and J.A. Doerr. 1993. Effectiveness of different types of clay for reducing the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated diets on performance and serum profiles of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1226-1231.

    Xu, Zi-rong, E.T. Kornegay, L.A. Sweet, M.D. Lindemann, H.P. Veit and B.A. Watkins. 1990. Effects of feeding aspirin and soybean oil to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1639-1647.

    Lindemann, M.D. and E.T. Kornegay. 1989. Folic acid supplemen¬tation to diets of gestating-lactating swine over multiple parities. J. Anim. Sci. 67:459-464.

    Barnett, K.L., E.T. Kornegay, C.R. Risley, M.D. Lindemann and G.G. Schurig. 1989. Characterization of creep feed consumption and its subsequent effects on immune response, scouring index and performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2698-2708.

    Payne, G.G., D.C. Martens, E.T. Kornegay and M.D. Lindemann. 1988. Availability and form of copper in three soils following eight annual applications of Cu-enriched swine manure. J. Environ. Qual. 17:740-746.

    Lindemann, M.D., E.T. Kornegay, J.B. Meldrum, G. Schurig and F.C. Gwazdauskas. 1987. The effect of feeder space allowance on weaned pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 64:8-14.

    Lindemann, M.D., S.G. Cornelius, S.M. El Kandelgy, R.L. Moser and J.E. Pettigrew. 1986. Effect of age, weaning and diet on digestive enzyme levels in the piglet. J. Anim. Sci. 62:1298 1307.

    Lindemann, M.D., E.T. Kornegay and E.R. Collins, Jr. 1985. The effect of various flooring materials on performance and foot health of weanling swine. Livestock Production Science 13:373-382.

    Selected Conference Proceedings

    Lindemann, M. D., J. S. Monegue, M. B. Davis, J.M. Dunfee, and K.W. Purser. 2011. Effect of including Cel-Can, an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast product, in sow diets on pig birth weight. Amer. Assoc. of Swine Veterinarians meeting, March 6, 2011. 42nd Annual Meeting Proc. Pp. 193-196.

    Lindemann, M.D., and Y.L. Ma. 2011. Mineral nutrition for lifetime performance of breeding pigs, Eastern Nutrition Conference (Montreal, Quebec, Canada), May 12, 2011, Pp. 115-127.

    Lindemann, M. D. 2009. Designing and interpreting research studies for accurate understanding of nutritional responses. Pre-ENICIP seminar. October 20, 2009, Medellin, Colombia.

    Lindemann, M.D. 2006. The Role of Selenium in Immune Function. Proc. of Prince Summit 2006, the 26th Annual Animal Nutrition Conference, Des Moines, IA.

    Lindemann, M.D. 2006. Recent Advances in Sow Reproductive Function. Alltech Pig Fertility Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario Canada.

    Lindemann, M.D. 2006. Enhancing Reproductive Parameters: The Omega Effect. 41st Annual Pacific Northwest Nutrition Conference Pre-conference Symposium (Sponsored by Virtus Nutrition), Vancouver, British Columbia Canada.

    Lindemann, M. D. 2005. Vitamin Supplementation – From Requirement to Risk Management. Proc. of 11th Short Course on Feed Technology, Seoul, Korea.

    Lindemann, M. D. and K. W. Purser. 2004. Recent research suggests chromium source and level is important when supplementing sow diets. American Association of Swine Veterinarians annual meeting, Des Moines IA.

    Lindemann, M.D. and C.A. Elmore. 2003. Diet manipulation strategies for managing manure output and composition - Proc. 2003 World Pork Expo Educational Seminars. Environmental Issues. Des Moines, IA.

    Lindemann, M. D. 2003. Viable alternatives to antibiotics. Proc. of the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference, Indianapolis IN.

    Lindemann, M.D., 2002. Feeding vegetarian diets to monogastrics: considerations for the animals and the environment. Proc. andres pintaluba, s.a. Technical Meeting on Additives and New Feed Technologies, Barcelona Spain.

    Lindemann, M.D., 2002. Dietary Fat: More than Just an Energy Source - Proc. AFIA Nutrition Conference held in conjunction with the 94th AFIA Convention, Reno, NV.

    Lindemann, M. D. 2001. Fatty acid nutrition of swine: CLA and Omega-3s. Proc. of the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference, Indianapolis IN.

    Lindemann, M.D. 2000. Fat sources and vitamin supplementation - a need to re-examine sow diets? Proc. Manitoba Swine Seminar, Manitoba Canada.

    Lindemann, M.D. 1998. The impact of enzymes in growing-finishing diets for pigs: the possibilities of minimizing nitrogen waste with a new enzyme for soya protein. Proc. of Alltech’s Pre-Conference Symposium for the Eastern Nutrition Conference (Canadian Feed Industry Association).

    Lindemann, M.D. 1998. Latest swine nutrition considerations in the US. American Soybean Association trip to Japan.

    Lindemann, M.D. 1998. Feeding value of dried porcine solubles (an intestinal hydrolysate) for nursery pigs. Proc. of the 5th International Feed Production Conference. Piacenza, Italy.

    Cromwell, G.L., S.D. Carter, M.D. Lindemann, and L.W. Turner. 1996. Reducing the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in growing and finishing pigs by dietary manipulation. Proc. International Pig Veterinary Society Congress.

    Selected Other Papers and Reports

    Lindemann, M.D., J.S. Monegue, M.B. Davis, J.M. Dunfee, and K.W. Purser. 2011. Effect of including Cel-Can, an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast product, in sow diets on pig birth weight. Proc.42nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, March 6, 2011. pp. 193-196.

    Lindemann, M.D., and Y.L. Ma. 2011. Mineral nutrition for lifetime performance of breeding pigs. Proceedings of the Eastern Nutrition Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 12, 2011. pp. 115-127. 

    Ma, Y.L., and M.D. Lindemann. 2011. Fetal nutrient deposition throughout gestation. Proceedings of the Midwest Swine Nutrition Conference, Indianapolis, IN, September 8, 2011. pp. 53-57.

    Martens, D.C., J.R. McKenna, S.T. Reed, E.T. Kornegay and M.D. Lindemann. 1993. Crop response to high levels of copper application. 32 pp. In: International Copper Research Association Annual Report.

    Kornegay, E.T. and M.D. Lindemann. 1984. Floor surfaces and flooring materials for swine. Pig News and Information 5 (4):351 357.

    Selected Book Chapters

    Lindemann, M. D. 2007. Use of Chromium as an Animal Feed Supplement. In: The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III). John B. Vincent (ed). Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Chapter 5, pp 85-118.

    Lindemann, M. D., and B. G. Kim. 2006. Recent Advances in Sow Reproductive Function. In: Nutritional Approaches to Arresting the Decline in Fertility of Pigs and Poultry. J. A. Taylor-Pickard and L. Nollet (eds.). Wageningen Academic Press, NL. pp. 25-34


    B.S., Animal Science, University of Minnesota, 1977
    Ph.D., Animal Science, University of Minnesota, 1981

    Contact Information

    Dr. Tony Pescatore, Ph.D.
    Interim Department Chair

    900 W.P. Garrigus Building Lexington, KY 40546-0215

    +1 (859) 257-2686