2016 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of dietary supplementation of Actigen® and Allzyme SSF® on the performance and carcass yield of boiler chicks
T. Ao, L. Macalintal, M. Paul, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, M. Ford, K. Dawson
Actigen® is a concentrated source of the mannan-rich fraction of the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been developed to modulate gut health and integrity. Allzyme® SSF is a naturally fermented product with multiple enzyme activities including carbohydrase, protease and phytase. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Actigen® and Allzyme SSF® on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chicks. A 2 x 2 factorial dietary treatment structure was used with 2 levels of Actigen® (no or + 400 g/Ton) and 2 levels of Allzyme SSF® (no or + 200 g/Ton). The low nutrient density corn-soybean meal diet contained100 kcal/kg less ME and 0.15% less Ca & available P than the diet used in commercial production. A total of 480 1-day old chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments with five replicate pens of 24 chicks. The chicks were raised in floor pens in an environmentally controlled room for 41d with free access to feed and water. At the end of the trial, carcass yield was measured by using four birds per pen. Data were subjected to ANOVA for a 2 x 2 factorial design using the linear model of Statistix V. 9. Mean differences were determined using Fisher’s LSD test. Chicks fed the diet containing Allzyme SSF® or/ and Actigen® had higher (P<0.05) weight gain than those fed control diet during 1-30d growing period. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF® increased (P<0.05) overall weight gain and cold carcass yield of broiler chicks. Dietary supplementation of Actigen® increased cold carcass yield significantly. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF® or Actigen® in corn-soybean meal diet can improve growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chicks by increasing nutrient utilization.

Maternal dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compound affect levels of trace minerals in eggs and docosahexaenoic acid content in progeny tissues
L. Macalintal, T. Ao, A. Pescatore, A. Cantor, P Glenney, M. Ford, K. Dawson
The effects of supplementing broiler breeder diets with polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from microalgae and an antioxidant pack on the levels of egg trace minerals and fatty acids (FA) composition in chick tissues were assessed. Broiler breeders were fed a commercial corn-soy based diet with or without the addition of 1%All-G-Rich™ + EconomasE® utilizing 6 pens/treatment containing 10 hens with 1 rooster/pen. Microalgae (All-G-Rich™, Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech, Inc.) is known to contain high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) while EconomasE® is a proprietary blend of ingredients designed to improve the antioxidant status of animals. At 24 wks of production, 3 eggs / pen were collected for trace mineral content and fatty acid analysis. Eggs collected at 17 weeks of production were incubated and at hatch, 6 chicks / pen were harvested for FA profiling of the residual yolk, brain, liver and breast muscle. The selenium, manganese and iron content of eggs from breeder hens fed the All-G-Rich™ and EconomasE® supplemented diets were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to those eggs from hens fed the corn-soy diet. Total n3 FA, particularly the DHA content of eggs from breeders fed the supplemented diet was higher than those eggs from non supplemented hens. No difference was detected for n6 FA however reduction in n6:n3 ratio was observed in eggs from breeders fed the supplemented diet (P<0.01). The DHA content of tissues harvested from progeny of breeder hens fed the supplemented diet was higher (P<0.01) than those chicks from breeder hens fed the corn-soy diet. EPA was detected and found be higher in the brain, liver and breast muscle but not at the residual yolk of chicks from hens fed the supplemented diet. Higher concentrations of Ʃn-3 FA (P<0.001) were measured in the brain, liver, and muscle while low concentrations of Ʃn-6 FA for brain and liver but not breast muscle were detected in chicks from hens fed the supplemented diet. No difference was observed for the residual yolk. Reduction in the n6/n3 ratio (P<0.01) was observed for the residual yolk sac, brain and liver but not for the breast muscle. Supplementation of the maternal diet with All-GRich™ + EconomasE® increased the levels of critical trace minerals in breeder eggs. Furthermore it appears that maternal transfer of n-3 FA may enhance brain function and development by enhancing the DHA content in the chick brain.

2015 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of dietary All-G-Rich and EconomasE on semen quality of broiler breeder roosters
L.M. Macalintal, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King, and K.A. Dawson
Semen quality is a major factor affecting fertility in chickens. Avian semen is characterized by high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which provide fluidity and structural integrity of the sperm cell membrane. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding microalgae and an antioxidant product to diets of broiler breeder roosters on semen quality and sperm morphology. Microalgae (All-G-Rich, Schizochytrium limacinum CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc.) is known to contain high levels of DHA while EconomasE is a proprietary blend of ingredients designed to improve the antioxidant status of animals. Eighteen broiler breeder roosters (Cobb500), 33 wk of age, were housed in individual cages and were provided feed and water on an ad libitum basis. Roosters were divided into 2 groups (n = 9 each) and were fed a corn-soybean meal diet with or without All-G-Rich + EconomasE. Three pooled semen samples (3 roosters / pool), were obtained from each experimental group. After collection, semen samples were diluted 1:1 with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and maintained at 25°C during analysis. Diluted semen was analyzed for packed cell volume, sperm cell concentration using a hemocytometer and morphology using an eosin/nigrosin staining technique. Feeding a combination of All-GRich + EconomasE significantly increased the sperm concentration (P = 0 .022) and packed cell volume (P = 0 .036). No difference was observed for either viability or mortality. However, the percentage of abnormal sperm cells was higher for the non supplemented birds, compared with those fed the supplemented diet with the combination of All-G-Rich + EconomasE (P = 0 .009). Normal cells, as a percentage of viable cells, was significantly higher for All-G-Rich + EconomasE-fed birds (P = 0 .047). These data suggest that feeding a diet containing All-G-Rich + EconomasE can be used to improve the semen quality of broiler breeder roosters.

2014 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF on the performance of boiler chicks fed different types of diet
T. Ao, K. McKinney, L. M. Macalintal, M. A. Paul, A. J. Pescatore, A. H. Cantor, M. J. Ford, and K. A. Dawson
Allzyme SSF is a naturally fermented product with multiple enzyme activities including carbohydrase, protease and phytase. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing Allzyme SSF in diets containing alternative feed ingredients with varying nutrient densities on the performance of broiler chicks. A 2 × 3 factorial dietary treatment structure was used with 2 enzyme levels: no enzyme or + 0.02% Allzyme SSF and 3 types of diet: corn-soy diet with low nutrient density; corn-soy-DDGs diet with normal nutrient density; corn-soyDDGs diet with low nutrient density. The normal nutrient density diet contained 3050 Kcal ME/kg, 22% CP, 0.45% available P and 1.0% Ca while the low nutrient density diet was designed to contain 75 kcal/kg less ME, 2.0% less CP and 0.1% less Ca and available P. A total of 288 1-d old chicks were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments with 8 replicate groups of 6 chicks. The chicks were raised in pullet cages in an environmentally controlled room for 21d with free access to feed and water. Data were subjected to ANOVA for a 2 × 3 factorial design using the linear model of Statistix V. 9. Mean differences were determined using Fisher’s LSD test. No interactive effects were detected between the 2 factors. Chicks fed the low nutrient corn-soy diet had lower (P < 0.01) weight gain and gain to feed ratio during both the 1–14d and 1–21d periods compared with those fed normal nutrient density DDGs diet. Chicks fed the low nutrient DDGs diet had lower (P < 0.01) weight gain and gain to feed ratio compared with those fed low nutrient corn-soy diet. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF increased (P < 0.01) gain to feed ratio of chicks during entire 21d period. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF in both corn-soybean meal diet and corn-soy-DDGs diet can improve growth performance of broiler chicks.

2013 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Comparison of the true check in vitro screening method for normal and reformulated diets containing increasing levels of Allzyme SSF versus measured AME
R.S. Samuel, P.B. Becker, M.J. Ford, A.H. Cantor, A.J. Pescatore and T. Ao
The True Check in vitro screening method (Alltech Inc.) has been developed to simulate the digestion of feeds by poultry by replicating major areas of digestion. True Check measures reducing sugar and phosphate released due to the addition of Allzyme SSF. The objective of this project was to compare the results obtained from True Check versus animal performance results measured from the same diets fed to broilers. To evaluate additions of Allzyme SSF to normal and reformulated wheat-based diets, 8 dietary treatments representing a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of 2 nutrient levels and 4 enzyme levels (0, 200, 400 or 600 g/T) were designed. The normal ME diet was formulated to provide all nutrients equal or greater than the recommendations of NRC for broilers. The low ME diet was reformulated to contain 0.1% less available phosphorus and total calcium and 75 kcal/kg less ME than the normal ME diets. Day old male broiler chicks (n = 384) were randomly assigned as 8 replicates/treatment of 6 chicks per cage raised for 21 d. An internal marker was included for the measurement of AME. True Check samples were analyzed in triplicate and the results were averaged. Animal performance data were analyzed as a factorial arrangement for the main effects of Allzyme SSF inclusion and nutrient level and the interaction. Free phosphate and reducing sugars increased when Allzyme SSF was added to the normal diet, except at 600 g/T. For reformulated diets, a numerical increase in reducing sugar release from 200 and 400 g/T inclusion rates compared with the control and a significant increase in reducing sugar release from 600 g/T inclusion of Allzyme SSF was observed. A significant (P < 0.01) interaction indicated greater energy uplift due to Allzyme SSF in the reformulated diets compared with the normal diets. Reducing sugar content predicted (P = 0.01) the measured AME of normal (R2 = 0.20) and reformulated (R2 = 0.20) diets. In conclusion, both methods demonstrated a curvilinear response to additions of Allzyme SSF where maximum benefit was observed at 400 g/T in reformulated wheat-based diets.

2012 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Inclusion of Allzyme SSF® in brown layer diets containing up to 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) reduces the detrimental effects on shell quality.
A.D. Quant, A.J. Pecatore, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of including up to 30% DDGS in brown layer diets with or without an enzyme supplement (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) throughout an entire production cycle (60 weeks production). This experiment utilized 288 Hy-Line Brown hens that were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments (12 hens per replicate group). Dietary treatments included a 1) positive control (corn-soybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®, 4) 30% DDGS, and 5) 30% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®. In comparison with the positive control diet, diets containing DDGS were calculated to contain reduced levels of AME (2877 vs. 2794 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.22 vs. 4.10%), and available P (0.29% vs. 0.17% for the 15% DDGS diet, and 0.23% for the 30% DDGS diet). Six eggs from each replicate were randomly selected every 4 weeks for determination of egg quality. Dietary inclusion of DDGS resulted in a significant decrease in shell weight when compared with the positive control (P<0.01), however this effect was alleviated by the addition of Allzyme SSF® to diets containing 15% DDGS. Similarly, shell breaking strength was reduced by the inclusion of DDGS compared to the positive control (P<0.01). This effect was eliminated by the addition of Allzyme SSF® to diets containing 15% DDGS (P<0.01). Humerus breaking strength was significantly lower than the positive control in diets containing 15% DDGS (P=0.03), however values for the tibia breaking strength were unaffected by dietary treatment. The inclusion of DDGS resulted in increased Haugh unit values compared with the positive control (P=0.02). Yolk color was affected by DDGS inclusion, regardless of enzyme inclusion, as L* (lightness) values decreased, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values increased as dietary DDGS inclusion increased (P<0.01 for all). Hen body weight however, was significantly lower than that of the positive control for all diets containing DDGS (P<0.01). There was no effect of dietary treatment on egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, hen body weight, feed conversion, and hen day production through 60 weeks of production. This study indicates that the detrimental effects on shell quality from brown layers fed DDGS may be alleviated by the addition of Allzyme SSF®.

Evaluating the effect of feeding up to 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and Allzyme SSF® on egg production and egg quality of white layers through 60 weeks production.
A.D. Quant, A.J. Pescatore, J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, W.D. King
The inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in poultry diets has become more prevalent as a cost-cutting strategy in response to the high demand of corn for fuel ethanol production. Previous work in our laboratory have indicated that inclusion of up to 30% DDGS in diets fed to laying hens resulted in limited detrimental effects on egg quality through the first half of a production cycle (30 weeks). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding layer diets including up to 30% DDGS with or without an enzyme supplement (Allzyme SSF®, Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) throughout an entire production cycle (60 weeks). This experiment utilized 288 Hy-Line W-36 hens that were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments (12 hens per replicate). Dietary treatments included a 1) positive control (cornsoybean meal), 2) 15% DDGS, 3) 15% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®, 4) 30% DDGS, and 5) 30% DDGS + 150 g/ton Allzyme SSF®. In comparison to the positive control diet, diets containing DDGS were calculated to contain reduced levels of ME (2877 vs. 2794 Kcal/kg), Ca (4.22 vs. 4.10%), and available P (0.29% vs. 0.17% for the 15% DDGS diet, and 0.23% for the 30% DDGS diet). Six eggs from each replicate were randomly selected every 4 weeks for determination of egg quality. Overall during the 60 week production cycle, diets containing 30% DDGS and Allzyme SSF® resulted in greater Haugh unit values than the other treatments (P=0.01). Yolk color was affected by DDGS inclusion, regardless of enzyme inclusion, as L* (lightness) values decreased, and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values increased as dietary DDGS inclusion increased (P<0.01 for all). Other egg quality parameters were unaffected by dietary treatment (shell breaking strength; whole egg, shell, yolk, and albumin weights). There was no effect of dietary treatment on hen body weight, feed conversion, and hen day production through 60 weeks of production. This study suggests that DDGS can be included up to 30% in layer diets without any detrimental effects on hen performance or egg quality.

Evaluation of methodology to determine TMEn of feed ingredients
R. Samuel, T. Ao, M. Ford, A. Cantor, A. Pescatore, J. Pierce
Allzyme SSF is a naturally fermented product with activities of multiple enzymes. The recommended inclusion may impact the TMEn content of feedstuffs and diets composed of those feedstuffs for poultry. Corn meal, DDGS, SBM, canola meal, corn-SBM diet, corn-SBM diet with 70% replacement of SBM by DDGS and wheat-SBM diet were prepared with and without Allzyme SSF. Twenty-four roosters were housed individually in metabolism cages with an individual tray for excreta collection. Six birds were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments within each of four trials. Roosters were trained to a single 1 h ad libitum feeding period per day until feed intake was at least 30 g. Birds were fasted for at least 24 h before feeding for 1 h which was immediately followed by 24 h excreta collection which was started after feed withdrawal (collection day 1). Feeding and collection was repeated similarly on day 2. Finally, excreta was collected from fasted birds for 24 h to determine endogenous losses (collection day 3). Results from excreta collection days were not different, therefore results were pooled by diet. Endogenous excreta were pooled by diet. Feed intake exceeded or equaled 30 g per d. There were no differences in feed intake (P>0.19) with or without Allzyme SSF in the diets, except feed intake was greater (P<0.05) for birds fed DDGS without Allzyme SSF (47.7 vs. 37.1 g/d). Excreta weights before or after drying were not different (P>0.06) due to the inclusion of Allzyme SSF, except the weight of excreta from birds fed corn meal with Allzyme SSF was greater (P<0.01) before drying. True ME digestibility was greater (P=0.03) for birds fed canola meal with Allzyme SSF than without (57.3 vs. 51.5%); there were no other differences. Energy digestibility ranged from 51 to 90 % for the individual feedstuffs. Birds appeared to adjust their feed intakes according to the energy digestibility of the diets. Inclusion of DDGS in the corn-SBM diet very slightly reduced energy digestibility (83.3 vs 81.0%; P<0.01). The TMEn (kcal/g) was not different due to the inclusion of Allzyme SSF in any of the diets (P>0.13). Therefore, it appears that using intact (non-cecectomized) roosters to determine the effect of Allzyme SSF on the TMEn of individual feedstuffs or diets is not a viable experimental approach.

2010 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Allzyme SSF increased AMEn of the corn-soy diet and improved performance of broilers. 
T. Ao, J.L. Pierce, B. Hoskins, M. Paul, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, and W.D. King.
Allzyme SSF is a naturally fermented product with activities of multiple enzymes such as carbohydrase and phytase. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing Allzyme SSF on AMEn and retention of P and DM of the diets and growth performance of broiler chicks in a 21d period. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy reference diet containing 3150 kcal MEn /kg and 0.45% nonphytate P; 2) corn-soy low P and ME diet containing 3000 kcal MEn /kg and 0.25% nonphytate P; 3) diet 2 + 200 g Allzyme SSF /MT diet; 4) diet 2 + 400 g Allzyme SSF /MT diet. A total of 192 1-d old chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 8 replicate groups of 6 chicks per treatment. Chicks were housed in starter cages in an environmentally controlled room with an ad libitum access to feed and water. Celite (acid-insoluble ash) was used as an internal marker with an inclusion rate of 1% for the assay of AMEn and retention of P and DM on d 20 by using 24h fecal collection. Chicks fed the low P and ME diet had lower (< 0.01) weight gain and higher (< 0.01) feed to gain ratio compared with other treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF in low nutrient diet at both levels increased (< 0.01) weight gain and decreased (< 0.01) feed to gain ratio of chicks. AMEn of the low nutrient diet was increased (< 0.01) by supplementing Allzyme SSF at both levels. The retention of P and DM was significantly increased by supplementing 400 g/MT Allzyme SSF. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF in corn-soy diet can improve the performance of broiler chicks by increasing AMEn value and retention of P and DM of the diet. 

2009 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING

Investigation of replacing vitamin E with EconomasE® in broiler diet. 
J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, R.F. Power, K.A. Dawson, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, M.J. Ford, and Y.L. Xiong
EconomasE® is a proprietary blend of ingredients that maximizes antioxidant status of the animal and reduces the requirement of vitamin E (VE). A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementing EconomasE® in broiler diet on the performance, oxidative stability, meat quality and storage stability of broiler chicks. Dietary treatments included: 1) corn-soy control diet supplemented 0.3 ppm Se as selenite, but no VE; 2) corn-soy control diet supplemented 0.3 ppm Se as selenite, plus 50 IU/kg VE; 3) corn-soy control diet supplemented 0.3 ppm Se as selenite, plus 100 IU/kg VE; 4) corn-soy control diet, plus 200 g/ Ton EconomasE®. A total of 640 chicks was raised for six weeks. Eight replicate cages of 20 chicks were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments. Chicks were housed in floor pens with new litter in an environmentally controlled room and were given ad libitum access to feed and water. No significant difference among all the treatments was observed in terms of weight gain and feed intake. The breast meat from chicks fed EconomasE® showed better color stability and less amount of drip loss compared with that from chicks fed other treatment diets. The total antioxidant capacity of serum from chicks fed EconomasE® was the same as that from chicks fed additional 50 or 100 IU/ kg VE and was higher (P<0.01) than that from chicks fed control diet. The breast muscle from chicks fed EconomasE® had higher (P<0.01) Se content than other treatment groups. No dietary effect on breast muscle VE content was detected. The results from this trial showed that supplementing EconomasE® in broiler diet had the same or better effects on performance, meat quality and total antioxidant capacity of chicks compared with dietary supplementation of 0.3 ppm Se as selenite plus 50 or 100 IU/kg VE.

2009 SOUTHERN POULTRY SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM

Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF® on the performance of chicks fed low phosphorus diets. 
J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
Allzyme SSF® is a naturally fermented complex capable of increasing release of phytate-bound phosphorus, calcium, energy and amino acids from poultry feed. In order to investigate the effect of Allzyme SSF® on the performance of chicks fed low phosphorus diet, a total of 192 chicks was raised for three weeks by using the following treatment diets: 1) corn-soy positive control diet containing 0.45% available phosphorus; 2) corn-soy negative control diet containing 0.25% available phosphorus; 3) Diet 2 + 400 g Allzyme SSF® / Ton; 4) Diet 2 + 600 g Allzyme SSF® / Ton. Eight replicate cages of six chicks were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments. Chicks were housed in starter cages in an environmentally controlled room with an ad libitum access to feed and water. Chicks fed the low phosphorus negative control diet had lower (P<0.01) weight gain and feed intake compared with other dietary treatment groups and had lower (P<0.01) gain to feed ratio compared with chicks fed diet with supplementation of 600 g Allzyme SSF® / Ton in the entire experimental period. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF® in the low phosphorus basal diet significantly increased (P<0.01) weight gain, feed intake and gain to feed ratio. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF® in corn-soy based poultry diets can improve phosphorus utilization.

2008 POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION MEETING 

Effects of dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF® on the performance of chicks fed wheat-based diets. 
J.L. Pierce, T. Ao, A.J. Pescatore, A.H. Cantor, K.A. Dawson, and M.J. Ford.
Allzyme® SSF is a natural fermentation product that improves the utilization of fibrous feed by chicks. A 14-d trial using 160 1-day-old chicks was conducted to investigate the effects of Allzyme SSF® on the performance of chicks fed a soft red winter wheat based diet. Dietary treatments were: 1) wheat-soy basal diet containing 3,050 kcal ME / kg and 0.45% available phosphorus; 2) Diet 1 + 200 g Allzyme SSF® /Ton; 3) Low nutrient wheat-soy basal diet containing 2,975 kcal ME / kg and 0.35% available phosphorus; 4) Diet 3 + 200 g Allzyme SSF® /Ton. The wheat contained 11% crude protein. Eight replicate cages of 5 chicks were randomly assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments. Chicks were housed in starter cages in an environmentally controlled room with an ad libitum access to feed and water. Chicks fed the low nutrient wheat-soy basal diet had lower (< 0.01) weight gain during both the 1–7 d and 1–14 d periods and lower gain to feed ratio in the 1–14 d period compared with other treatment groups. Dietary supplementation of Allzyme SSF® in the low nutrient wheat-soy basal diet significantly increased (< 0.01) weight gain of chicks during both the 1–7 d and 1–14 d periods and tended to increase (by 8.7%) gain to feed ratio of chicks during the 1–14 d period. Data from this trial indicate that supplementation of Allzyme SSF® in wheat based diets for chicks can improve energy and phosphorus utilization.

Ammonia release and nutrient content of laying hen manure as affected by distillers dried grains with solubles and enzyme supplementation.
A.J. Pescatore, A. Singh, R.S. Gates, A. H. Cantor, J.L. Pierce, K.A. Dawson, T. Ao, and M.J. Ford.
The effects of using distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with and without enzyme supplementation in laying hen diets on the nutrient content and ammonia release of manure was evaluated. Hens were fed one of five diets: 1) corn-soybean meal diet (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg ME); 2) corn-soybean meal diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2850 Kcal/kg); 3) Diet 2 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation (Allzyme DDGS®, Alltech Inc.); 4) low energy corn-soybean mean diet with 25% DDGS (16% CP, 2550 Kcal/kg ME); and 5) Diet 4 plus 0.1% enzyme preparation. Manure samples were collected from eight groups of six hens for each of the dietary treatments. An equilibrium flux chamber technique was used to determine ammonia gas release from the manure. Manure samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content and percent N, P and K. There was no effect of treatments on moisture content or pH. Ammonia release was highest for hens fed the corn-soybean meal diet (Diet 1) and lowest for those fed the low energy DDGS diet (Diet 4). Total ammoniacal nitrogen content for all of the DDGS diets was higher than for the corn-soybean meal diet. Manure from hens fed the DDGS diets had lower P and K content than that from hens fed the corn-soybean diet. Total nitrogen content was lowest for manure from hens fed diets supplemented with the Allzyme DDGS® enzyme preparation (Diets 3 and 5). The results indicate that inclusion of DDGS and enzymes in laying hen diets can affect ammonia release and nutrient content of the manure.