Vaccines can be a very important tool for preventing poultry diseases. Unfortunately, most poultry vaccines are only available in 1,000 or more doses, and once mixed must be used within 24 hours. It is important, therefore, to consider the price of the vial and calculate the cost per bird.

The avian immune system (University of Kentucky)

The interrelationship of nutrition and immunity (University of Florida)

Understanding vaccines (University of Nebraska)

Vaccination of small flocks (University of Florida)

Investigating vaccination failure in poultry flocks (University of Florida)